Causal effects in clinical and epidemiological studies via potential outcomes: concepts and analytical approaches.

@article{Little2000CausalEI,
  title={Causal effects in clinical and epidemiological studies via potential outcomes: concepts and analytical approaches.},
  author={Roderick J. A. Little and Donald B. Rubin},
  journal={Annual review of public health},
  year={2000},
  volume={21},
  pages={
          121-45
        }
}
A central problem in public health studies is how to make inferences about the causal effects of treatments or agents. In this article we review an approach to making such inferences via potential outcomes. In this approach, the causal effect is defined as a comparison of results from two or more alternative treatments, with only one of the results actually observed. We discuss the application of this approach to a number of data collection designs and associated problems commonly encountered… 

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