Causal diagrams for encoding and evaluation of information bias.

@article{Shahar2009CausalDF,
  title={Causal diagrams for encoding and evaluation of information bias.},
  author={Eyal Shahar},
  journal={Journal of evaluation in clinical practice},
  year={2009},
  volume={15 3},
  pages={436-40}
}
BACKGROUND Epidemiologists and clinical researchers usually classify bias into three main categories: confounding, selection bias and information bias. Previous authors have described the first two categories in the logic and notation of causal diagrams, formally known as directed acyclic graphs (DAG). METHODS I examine common types of information bias--disease-related and exposure-related--from the perspective of causal diagrams. RESULTS Disease or exposure information bias always involves… CONTINUE READING