Causal cognition in a non-human primate: field playback experiments with Diana monkeys

@article{Zuberbhler2000CausalCI,
  title={Causal cognition in a non-human primate: field playback experiments with Diana monkeys},
  author={Klaus Zuberb{\"u}hler},
  journal={Cognition},
  year={2000},
  volume={76},
  pages={195-207}
}

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Results showed that monkeys used the semantic information conveyed by the Campbell's alarm calls to predict the presence of a predator, consistent with the hypothesis that non–human primates are able to use acoustic signals of diverse origin as labels for underlying mental representations.

Causal knowledge of predators' behaviour in wild Diana monkeys

Results were consistent with the hypothesis that monkeys responding cryptically to chimpanzee alarm calls did so because they were not able to understand the calls' meaning, and with three possible cognitive mechanisms, associative learning, specialized learning programmes, and causal reasoning, that could have led to causal knowledge in some individuals but not others.

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Analysis of male and female alarm-call behaviour showed that Diana monkeys consistently responded to predator category regardless of immediate threat or direction of attack, and suggested that, in addition to predator categories, monkeys' alarm calls might also convey information about the predator's distance.

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