This section aims to identify the root causes of the environmental and socio-economic impacts resulting from those issues and concerns that were prioritised during the assessment, so that appropriate policy interventions can be developed and focused where they will yield the greatest benefi ts for the region. In order to achieve this aim, the analysis involved a step-by-step process that identifi ed the most important causal links between the environmental and socio-economic impacts, their immediate causes, the human activities and economic sectors responsible and, fi nally, the root causes that determine the behaviour of those sectors. The GIWA Causal chain analysis (CCA) recognises that, within each region, there is often enormous variation in capacity and great social, cultural, political and environmental diversity. The CCA uses a relatively simple and practical analytical model. For further details on the methodology, please refer to the GIWA methodology in Annex IV.