Causal Inference from Complex Longitudinal Data

@inproceedings{Robins1997CausalIF,
  title={Causal Inference from Complex Longitudinal Data},
  author={James M. Robins},
  year={1997}
}
The subject-specific data from a longitudinal study consist of a string of numbers. These numbers represent a series of empirical measurements. Calculations are performed on these strings of numbers and causal inferences are drawn. For example, an investigator might conclude that the analysis provides strong evidence for “a direct effect of AZT on the survival of AIDS patients controlling for the intermediate variable - therapy with aerosolized pentamidine.” The nature of the relationship… 
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