Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of the First Oxaliplatin Pt(IV) Derivative Having a TSPO Ligand in the Axial Position
Oxidative addition and reductive elimination are fundamental processes in transition-metal chemistry. New interest in this field has been generated by the exploitation of platinum(IV) complexes as antitumor drugs. The two extra ligands can be used to render these species more resistant to attack by biological nucleophiles compared to their platinum(II) counterparts, to anchor additional pharmacologically active moieties, or, finally, to target the drug to specific sites by conferring responsiveness to some type of chemotaxis. On the other hand, platinum(IV) species are considered to be prodrugs and to require reduction to Pt(II) to become active. Thus, reductive elimination promoted by biological reducing agents becomes an important issue and it too could be exploited for targeting purposes. In this paper, we investigated the oxidation step in more detail and shown that, independent of the solvent used, a solvent molecule assists the reaction by entering in a trans position with respect to the attacking oxidant. In the case of bifunctional solvent molecules, such as dimethylsulfoxide, both S- and O-coordinated species are formed, the latter being thermodynamically favored. The substitution of the axially coordinated solvent molecule by a free chloride ion is found to be quite slow in organic solvents, as well as in water. It is also shown that the intermediate solvato-species can be exploited for binding just one molecule of another substrate in the axial position.