Cathinone, an alkaloid from khat leaves with an amphetamine-like releasing effect

  title={Cathinone, an alkaloid from khat leaves with an amphetamine-like releasing effect},
  author={Peter Kalix},
  • P. Kalix
  • Published 2004
  • Biology
  • Psychopharmacology
Khat leaves, widely used as a stimulant in East Africa and the Arab Peninsula, contain the alkaloid (-)-cathinone. The effects of this substance on the efflux of radioactivity from rabbit striatal slices prelabelled with 3H-dopamine were examined. It was found that low concentrations of (-)cathinone enhance the release of radioactivity in a dose-dependent manner, and that (-)cathinone was capable of sustaining the enhanced release induced by (+)amphetamine. Pretreatment of the tissue with… 

An updated review on synthetic cathinones

The present work provides a comprehensive review on history and legal status, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and lethality in humans, as well as on the current knowledge of the neurotoxic mechanisms of synthetic cathinones.

A review of the neuropharmacological properties of khat

  • A. FeyissaJ. Kelly
  • Medicine
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 2008

Khat (Catha edulis)—an updated review

An extensive literature on khat providing information about its history, botany, production, geographical distribution, chemistry and pharmacology, and exploring the social, economic, medical, psychological and oral aspects related to its use is provided.

Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen

The history, cultivation and constituents of k hat, and the social aspects of khat chewing in Yemen, are described and the pharmacology of (−)‐S‐cathinone in the central nervous system and the peripheral effects are described.

The puzzle of drug-induced conditioned taste aversion: Comparative studies with cathinone and amphetamine

The potency of dl-cathinone (the active constituent of the Khat plant) was compared with that of d-amphetamine in the conditioned taste aversion (C.T.A. A.) procedure and in a test of drug-induced adipsia in rats, illustrating the unpredictable nature of drug actions in the C.T., which could not be predicted from knowledge of the potency of this compound.

Behavioral Profiles and Underlying Transmitters/Circuits of Cathinone-Derived Psychostimulant Drugs of Abuse

Evaluated evidence supports that the potently rewarding and reinforcing effects of certain synthetic cathinone drugs are likely mediated by preferential action at dopaminergic and noradrenergic transporters, while empathogenic effects more strongly align with augmentation of serotonin transmission.

Rats become acutely tolerant to cathine after amphetamine or cathinone administration

The results suggest that cathinone-produced discriminative stimulus, as well as the acute tolerance to cathine, may be dopaminergically mediated.

Khat (Catha edulis) and Obesity: A Scoping Review of Animal and Human Studies

There are a number of variations in the study design, including species, doses and durations of intervention, which makes it difficult to arrive at a final conclusion about khat regarding obesity, and further studies are necessary in the future to overcome these limitations.




  • P. Kalix
  • Biology, Psychology
    British journal of pharmacology
  • 1980
The effects of (−)‐cathinone on the locomotor behaviour of hypophysectomized rats was analogous to that reported for (+)‐amphetamine in such animals, and support the claim that the symptoms caused by the chewing of khat are amphetamine‐like.

Hyperthermic response to (—)‐cathinone, an alkaloid of Catha edulis (khat)

  • P. Kalix
  • Biology
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • 1980
Recently, a new khat alkaloid of the phenylethylamine type has been identified and the name (-)-cathinone has been proposed (UN document 1975; Schorno & Steinegger 1979). Most of the symptoms

Anorexigenic effects of two amines obtained from Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) in rats

Amphetamine: evaluation of d- and l-isomers as releasing agents and uptake inhibitors for 3H-dopamine and 3H-norepinephrine in slices of rat neostriatum and cerebral cortex.

It is concluded that in the cortex, d-amphetamine can act both to release and to block uptake of 3H-norepinephrine, and in the neostriatum, there is releasing action of 2H-dopamine by d- methamphetamine, but the apparent blockade of "uptake" is of questionable significance and appears to result from the release of previously accumulated3H- dopamine.

Medical aspects of the chewing of khat leaves.

  • H. Halbach
  • Medicine
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1972
Intoxication with khat is self-limiting but chronic consumption can cause certain disturbances to the health of the user and may also lead to social and economic damage to the individual and the community.

Biochemistry and behavior: some central actions of amphetamine and antipsychotic drugs.

This topic has not been treated previously in the Annual Review of Psychology, and is chosen to emphasize the provocative effects of amphetamin e on spontaneous behavior and the biochemical and neurophysiological studies that relate primarily to these behavioral effects.

Effect of collagenase on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine from slices of rat corpus striatum

The effect of collagenase on the release of two transmitters, dopamine (DA) and ACh, from striatal slices prepared from rat brain are reported, resulting in a low steady background of spontaneously released labelled compounds.

Etudes sur la composition chimique du khat , recherches sur la fraction ph 6 nylalkylamine . UN document MNAR / 11 WHO ( 1964 ) Expert Committee on Addiction - Producing Drugs , Thirteenth report

  • WHO Tech Rep Ser
  • 1975