Cathinone, an alkaloid from khat leaves with an amphetamine-like releasing effect

@article{Kalix2004CathinoneAA,
  title={Cathinone, an alkaloid from khat leaves with an amphetamine-like releasing effect},
  author={Peter Kalix},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2004},
  volume={74},
  pages={269-270}
}
  • P. Kalix
  • Published 2004
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychopharmacology
Khat leaves, widely used as a stimulant in East Africa and the Arab Peninsula, contain the alkaloid (-)-cathinone. The effects of this substance on the efflux of radioactivity from rabbit striatal slices prelabelled with 3H-dopamine were examined. It was found that low concentrations of (-)cathinone enhance the release of radioactivity in a dose-dependent manner, and that (-)cathinone was capable of sustaining the enhanced release induced by (+)amphetamine. Pretreatment of the tissue with… Expand
An updated review on synthetic cathinones.
TLDR
The present work provides a comprehensive review on history and legal status, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and lethality in humans, as well as on the current knowledge of the neurotoxic mechanisms of synthetic cathinones. Expand
A review of the neuropharmacological properties of khat
  • A. Feyissa, J. Kelly
  • Medicine
  • Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 2008
TLDR
It seems that the well investigated khat alkaloids have many features similar to amphetamines; however there is a need for a more thorough examination of khat itself in well designed in vitro, animal and human studies with a range of comparator drugs before confirming the claim that khat is a "natural amphetamine". Expand
Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: an emerging designer drug phenomenon.
TLDR
Insight is provided into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. Expand
Khat (Catha edulis)—an updated review
TLDR
An extensive literature on khat providing information about its history, botany, production, geographical distribution, chemistry and pharmacology, and exploring the social, economic, medical, psychological and oral aspects related to its use is provided. Expand
Bath salts, mephedrone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone as emerging illicit drugs that will need targeted therapeutic intervention.
  • R. Glennon
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Advances in pharmacology
  • 2014
TLDR
The use of the "and/or" term is emphasized because synthetic cathinones represent a broad class of agents that produce a variety of actions; the agents cannot be viewed as being pharmacologically equivalent. Expand
Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen
TLDR
The history, cultivation and constituents of k hat, and the social aspects of khat chewing in Yemen, are described and the pharmacology of (−)‐S‐cathinone in the central nervous system and the peripheral effects are described. Expand
Cognitive deficits and neurotoxicity induced by synthetic cathinones: is there a role for neuroinflammation?
TLDR
Like their traditional psychostimulant counterparts, synthetic cathinones appear to induce neurocognitive dysfunction and cytotoxicity, which are dependent on drug type, dose, frequency, and time following exposure. Expand
The puzzle of drug-induced conditioned taste aversion: Comparative studies with cathinone and amphetamine
TLDR
The potency of dl-cathinone (the active constituent of the Khat plant) was compared with that of d-amphetamine in the conditioned taste aversion (C.T.A. A.) procedure and in a test of drug-induced adipsia in rats, illustrating the unpredictable nature of drug actions in the C.T., which could not be predicted from knowledge of the potency of this compound. Expand
Behavioral Profiles and Underlying Transmitters/Circuits of Cathinone-Derived Psychostimulant Drugs of Abuse
TLDR
Evaluated evidence supports that the potently rewarding and reinforcing effects of certain synthetic cathinone drugs are likely mediated by preferential action at dopaminergic and noradrenergic transporters, while empathogenic effects more strongly align with augmentation of serotonin transmission. Expand
Rats become acutely tolerant to cathine after amphetamine or cathinone administration
TLDR
The results suggest that cathinone-produced discriminative stimulus, as well as the acute tolerance to cathine, may be dopaminergically mediated. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-9 OF 9 REFERENCES
HYPERMOTILITY OF THE AMPHETAMINE TYPE INDUCED BY A CONSTITUENT OF KHAT LEAVES
  • P. Kalix
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • British journal of pharmacology
  • 1980
TLDR
The effects of (−)‐cathinone on the locomotor behaviour of hypophysectomized rats was analogous to that reported for (+)‐amphetamine in such animals, and support the claim that the symptoms caused by the chewing of khat are amphetamine‐like. Expand
Hyperthermic response to (—)‐cathinone, an alkaloid of Catha edulis (khat)
  • P. Kalix
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • 1980
Recently, a new khat alkaloid of the phenylethylamine type has been identified and the name (-)-cathinone has been proposed (UN document 1975; Schorno & Steinegger 1979). Most of the symptomsExpand
Anorexigenic effects of two amines obtained from Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) in rats
TLDR
Cathinone was more effective than cathine, and both were less active than amphetamine, and partial or total cross-tolerance was observed among the 3 drugs. Expand
Amphetamine: evaluation of d- and l-isomers as releasing agents and uptake inhibitors for 3H-dopamine and 3H-norepinephrine in slices of rat neostriatum and cerebral cortex.
TLDR
It is concluded that in the cortex, d-amphetamine can act both to release and to block uptake of 3H-norepinephrine, and in the neostriatum, there is releasing action of 2H-dopamine by d- methamphetamine, but the apparent blockade of "uptake" is of questionable significance and appears to result from the release of previously accumulated3H- dopamine. Expand
Medical aspects of the chewing of khat leaves.
  • H. Halbach
  • Medicine
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1972
TLDR
Intoxication with khat is self-limiting but chronic consumption can cause certain disturbances to the health of the user and may also lead to social and economic damage to the individual and the community. Expand
Biochemistry and behavior: some central actions of amphetamine and antipsychotic drugs.
TLDR
This topic has not been treated previously in the Annual Review of Psychology, and is chosen to emphasize the provocative effects of amphetamin e on spontaneous behavior and the biochemical and neurophysiological studies that relate primarily to these behavioral effects. Expand
Studies on the distinction between uptake inhibition and release of (3H)dopamine in rat brain tissue slices.
TLDR
It was possible to conclude that, in the tissue slice system, an experimentally observed release was real, whereas a releasing action evoked an apparent inhibition of uptake equal in magnitude to the releasing action. Expand
Effect of collagenase on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine from slices of rat corpus striatum
TLDR
The effect of collagenase on the release of two transmitters, dopamine (DA) and ACh, from striatal slices prepared from rat brain are reported, resulting in a low steady background of spontaneously released labelled compounds. Expand
Etudes sur la composition chimique du khat , recherches sur la fraction ph 6 nylalkylamine . UN document MNAR / 11 WHO ( 1964 ) Expert Committee on Addiction - Producing Drugs , Thirteenth report
  • WHO Tech Rep Ser
  • 1975