Catestatin in rat RVLM is sympathoexcitatory, increases barosensitivity, and attenuates chemosensitivity and the somatosympathetic reflex.

  title={Catestatin in rat RVLM is sympathoexcitatory, increases barosensitivity, and attenuates chemosensitivity and the somatosympathetic reflex.},
  author={Andrea H. Gaede and Paul M. Pilowsky},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology},
  volume={299 6},
  • A. H. GaedeP. Pilowsky
  • Published 1 December 2010
  • Biology
  • American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
The fundamental role and corollary effects of neuropeptides that govern cardiorespiratory control in the brain stem are poorly understood. One such regulatory peptide, catestatin [Cts, human chromogranin A-(352-372)], noncompetitively inhibits nicotinic-cholinergic-stimulated catecholamine release. Previously, we demonstrated the presence of chromogranin A mRNA in brain stem neurons that are important for the maintenance of arterial pressure. In the present study, using immunofluorescence… 

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Catestatin, a chromogranin A-derived peptide, is sympathoinhibitory and attenuates sympathetic barosensitivity and the chemoreflex in rat CVLM.

  • A. H. GaedeP. Pilowsky
  • Biology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2012
The results suggest that catestatin plays an important role in central cardiorespiratory control in urethane-anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, artificially ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats.

Catestatin has an unexpected effect on the intrathecal actions of PACAP dramatically reducing blood pressure.

The ability of catestatin pretreatment to enhance barosensitivity and chemosensitivity after PACAP-38 injection supports the hypothesis that catestarin manipulates the intracellular environment within sympathetic neurons in a way that increases responses to PACAP.

PACAP causes PAC1/VPAC2 receptor mediated hypertension and sympathoexcitation in normal and hypertensive rats.

PACAP has long-lasting cardiovascular effects, but altered PACAP signaling within the RVLM is not a cause of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and the role, in vivo, of PACAP on tonic and reflex cardiovascular control is unclear.

PACAP-(6-38) or kynurenate microinjections in the RVLM prevent the development of sympathetic long-term facilitation after acute intermittent hypoxia.

It is found that activation of glutamate but not PACAP receptors is necessary and sufficient to generate sLTF, even in the absence of intermittent hypoxia, which demonstrates that PACAP within the RVLM may contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea -induced hypertension.

Endothelium dependent cardiovascular effects of the Chromogranin A-derived peptides Vasostatin-1 and Catestatin.

This review focuses on the recently described signaling pathways activated by VS-1 and CST, giving insights into the mechanisms at the basis of their cardiac negative inotropic action, their vasodilator effects and their cardioprotective role observed in different experimental conditions.

Catestatin (Chromogranin A352–372) and Novel Effects on Mobilization of Fat from Adipose Tissue through Regulation of Adrenergic and Leptin Signaling*

The results implicate CST in a novel pathway that promotes lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation by blocking α-AR signaling as well as by enhancing leptin receptor signaling and improving peripheral leptin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice.



Catestatin attenuates the effects of intrathecal nicotine and isoproterenol

Galanin microinjection into rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat is hypotensive and attenuates sympathetic chemoreflex.

  • S. AbbottP. Pilowsky
  • Biology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2009
A role for galanin neurotransmission in the integration of the cardiovascular responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and the sympathetic baroreflex in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is suggested.

Reticulospinal vasomotor neurons in the RVL mediate the somatosympathetic reflex.

It is concluded that the rat somatosympathetic reflex consists of an early excitatory component due to the early activation of RVL-spinal sympathoexcitatory neurons with rapidly conducting axons and a later peak that may arise from the late activation of these same neurons as well as the early activated RVL vasomotor neurons with more slowly conducting spinal axons.

The cardiovascular actions of clonidine and neuropeptide‐Y in the ventrolateral medulla of the rat

It appears that in the areas investigated, there is no functional interaction between NPY and clonidine, and in this area their actions appear to be independent.

Rostral ventral medulla 5-HT1A receptors selectively inhibit the somatosympathetic reflex.

The role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on somatosympathetic, baroreceptor, and chemoreceptor reflexes was examined in anesthetized rats.

Catestatin (chromogranin A344-364) is a novel cardiosuppressive agent: inhibition of isoproterenol and endothelin signaling in the frog heart.

The cardiotropic actions of Cts, including the beta-adrenergic and ET-1 antagonistic effects, support a novel role of this peptide as an autocrine-paracrine modulator of cardiac function, particularly when the stressed heart becomes a preferential target of both adrenergic andET-1 stimuli.

Effect of chromogranin A on central autonomic control of blood pressure.

Somatostatin 2A Receptor–Expressing Presympathetic Neurons in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Maintain Blood Pressure

It is suggested that the subpopulation of bulbospinal RVLM neurons that expresses the sst2A receptor sets sympathetic vasomotor output and helps maintain resting blood pressure under anesthesia and contribute to adaptive reflexes mediated through the RVLM.

Effect of cholinergic agonists on bulbospinal C1 neurons in rats.

In conclusion, carbachol exerts both pre- and postsynaptic effects on C1 and other putative sympathoexcitatory RVLM neurons as well as a mixed nicotinic and muscarinic pharmacology in vivo.