Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis

  title={Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis},
  author={Daniel Garcia-Castellanos and Ferran Estrada and Ivone Jim{\'e}nez‐Munt and Christian Gorini and Manel Fern{\'a}ndez and Jaume Verg{\'e}s and Raquel de Vicente},
The Mediterranean Sea became disconnected from the world’s oceans and mostly desiccated by evaporation about 5.6 million years ago during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Atlantic waters found a way through the present Gibraltar Strait and rapidly refilled the Mediterranean 5.33 million years ago in an event known as the Zanclean flood. The nature, abruptness and evolution of this flood remain poorly constrained. Borehole and seismic data show incisions over 250 m deep on both sides of the… Expand
Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar arc
Numerical modelling suggests that the competition between uplift and erosion can result in harmonic coupling between erosion and the Mediterranean sea level, providing an alternative mechanism for the cyclicity observed in early salt precipitation deposits and calling into question previous ideas regarding the timing of the events that occurred during the Messinian salinity crisis. Expand
Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis
Abstract During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2Expand
The Gibraltar Corridor: Watergate of the Messinian Salinity Crisis
Abstract The existence and evolution of a Messinian salt giant in the Mediterranean Sea has caused much debate in the marine science community. Especially the suggestion that the Mediterranean was aExpand
Dense shelf water cascading and Messinian Canyons: A new scenario for the Mediterranean salinity crisis
The salt giant beneath the deep Mediterranean seafloor is the impressive record of the “Messinian salinity crisis,” a dramatic event that occurred about 6 Ma ago following the reduction of theExpand
A two-step process for the reflooding of the Mediterranean after the Messinian Salinity Crisis
The Messinian Salinity Crisis is well known to have resulted from a significant drop of the Mediterranean sea level. Considering both onshore and offshore observations, the subsequent reflooding isExpand
Dimensions of the Atlantic–Mediterranean connection that caused the Messinian Salinity Crisis
Abstract What kind of gateway is needed to cause a salinity crisis? Although several reconstructions of possible Atlantic–Mediterranean gateways are proposed for the late Miocene, so far the gatewayExpand
A single-stage megaflood at the termination of the Messinian salinity crisis: Geophysical and modelling evidence from the eastern Mediterranean Basin
Abstract The Messinian salinity crisis was an extraordinary event that resulted in the deposition of kilometre-thick evaporite sequences in the Mediterranean Sea after the latter became disconnectedExpand
The Messinian Salinity Crisis: Past and future of a great challenge for marine sciences
Forty years after the image of the Mediterranean transformed into a giant salty lake was first conceived, the fascinating history of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) still arouses great interestExpand
The Zanclean megaflood of the Mediterranean – Searching for independent evidence
Abstract About six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea underwent a period of isolation from the ocean and widespread salt deposition known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), allegedlyExpand
Deep Mediterranean's Messinian evaporite giant: How much salt?
Abstract Evaporite giants can precipitate out of high salinity waters in semi-enclosed ocean basins when the rate of evaporation outstrips the inflow of new saline and fresh waters. The thick salineExpand


Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis
The Messinian salinity crisis is widely regarded as one of the most dramatic episodes of oceanic change of the past 20 or so million years (refs 1–3). Earliest explanations were that extremely thickExpand
Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis
Using a thermomechanical model, it is shown that westward roll back of subducted Tethys oceanic lithosphere and associated asthenospheric upwelling provides a plausible mechanism for producing the shift in magma chemistry and the necessary uplift along the African and Iberian continental margins to close the Miocene marine gateways, thereby causing the Messinian salinity crisis. Expand
Improved modelling of the Messinian Salinity Crisis and conceptual implications
Abstract This paper presents the last developments of a simple oceanographic modelling of the water and salt budgets of the Mediterranean Sea during the late Miocene Salinity Crisis. The MessinianExpand
The messinian salinity crisis
  • K. Hsü
  • Geology
  • Naturwissenschaften
  • 2004
Two major discoveries made by the deepsea drilling during the last decade were the discovery of the Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and of the Late Miocene glacial advance of theExpand
The Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean
Publisher Summary A dramatic change in paleogeography and paleoceanography affected the Mediterranean area in the terminal part of the Miocene Epoch, when the connections with the Atlantic wereExpand
The Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean basin: A reassessment of the data and an integrated scenario
Abstract After a long period of controversial debate about the interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), a near consensus existed since the ODP Leg 42A for a model keeping the majorExpand
Choking the Mediterranean to dehydration: The Messinian salinity crisis
Strait uplift due to isostasy played a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of a desiccated Mediterranean basin during the Late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis. New three-dimensionalExpand
A quantitative analysis of the desiccation and re-filling of the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis
Notwithstanding the great deal of attention that the Messinian evaporites of the Mediterranean region have received from an observational point of view, there is, to date, no consensus as to theirExpand
The opening of the Plio-Quaternary Gibraltar Strait: assessing the size of a cataclysm
Abstract The widespread Lago-Mare facies show that the Mediterranean was fully isolated from the World Ocean at the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC): the Plio-Quaternary Gibraltar StraitExpand
Messinian subaerial erosion of the proto-Nile Delta☆
Abstract The evaporitic drawdown and subsequent dessication of the Mediterranean basins during the Messinian salinity crisis has been confirmed by detailed seismic mapping of the ensuing erosionExpand