Castration and Connection: Kinship Organization among Ming Eunuchs

@article{Chen2016CastrationAC,
  title={Castration and Connection: Kinship Organization among Ming Eunuchs},
  author={Gilbert Z. Chen},
  journal={Ming Studies},
  year={2016},
  volume={2016},
  pages={27 - 47}
}
Until recently, our understanding of Ming eunuchs was mostly centered on their involvement in political affairs. This article draws attention to the social history of Ming eunuchs, with a particular focus on their contribution to their natal families. Despite the fact of being castrated, Ming eunuchs generally maintained close relationships with their natal kinsmen. Once they obtained political power and material wealth at court, some eunuchs employed an array of strategies to build up kinship… 

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