Caste Flexibility and Variation according to the Colony Cycle in the Swarm-founding Wasp, Parachartergus fraternus (Gribodo) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini)

@inproceedings{Mateus2004CasteFA,
  title={Caste Flexibility and Variation according to the Colony Cycle in the Swarm-founding Wasp, Parachartergus fraternus (Gribodo) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini)},
  author={Sidnei Mateus and Fernando B. Noll and Ronaldo Zucchi},
  year={2004}
}
Abstract Differences between castes and related aspects in Parachartegus fraternus (Gribodo) have been studied in various stages of the colony cycle. Five colonies from three colony development stages (namely, pre-emergence, worker-producing and male-producing) were analyzed. The main results were: irrespective of colony age, castes were always morphologically indistinguishable; non-inseminated ovary-developed females were found in four colonies; because differences of castes were physiological… 

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