Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite

  title={Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite},
  author={Wendy L. Hall and D Joe Millward and S J Long and Linda M. Morgan},
  journal={British Journal of Nutrition},
  pages={239 - 248}
Protein, generally agreed to be the most satiating macronutrient, may differ in its effects on appetite depending on the protein source and variation in digestion and absorption. We investigated the effects of two milk protein types, casein and whey, on food intake and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness, and on postprandial metabolite and gastrointestinal hormone responses. Two studies were undertaken. The first study showed that energy intake from a buffet meal ad libitum was… 

Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study

Dietary treatments when served as high-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after Consumption of HC.

The glycemic, insulinemic and plasma amino acid responses to equi-carbohydrate milk meals, a pilot- study of bovine and human milk

Despite its lower protein content, the human milk was a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and showed insulinogenic properties similar to that seen with reconstituted bovine whey-protein, possibly due to the comparatively high proportion of whey in human milk.

Evidence of Enhanced Serum Amino Acid Profile but Not Appetite Suppression by Dietary Glycomacropeptide (GMP): A Comparison of Dairy Whey Proteins

It is concluded that total serum a.a. concentration was a poor indicator of satiety, with little evidence of differential satiety between these whey proteins other than a modest enhancement of fullness by ß-lac.

Energy intake, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin after different carbohydrate and protein preloads in overweight men.

Acute appetite and energy intake are equally reduced after consumption of lactose, casein, or whey compared with glucose, which was consistent with differences in plasma ghrelin.

The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men

Whey protein meal produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad libitum energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with the other protein meals, indicating a potential for appetite suppression and weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.

Effect of milk protein intake and casein-to-whey ratio in breakfast meals on postprandial glucose, satiety ratings, and subsequent meal intake.

High-carbohydrate breakfast meals with increased protein concentration could be a dietary strategy for the attenuation of blood glucose and improved satiety ratings after the second meal, and protein ratio showed a modest effect.

Effect of gender on the acute effects of whey protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormone responses in healthy young adults

The acute effects of whey protein ingestion on appetite, energy intake, gastric emptying and gut hormone responses are influenced by gender in healthy young adults.

Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion.

The speed of protein digestion and amino acid absorption from the gut has a major effect on whole body protein anabolism after one single meal by analogy with carbohydrate metabolism, slow and fast proteins modulate the postprandial metabolic response, a concept to be applied to wasting situations.

A comparison of the effects of beef, chicken and fish protein on satiety and amino acid profiles in lean male subjects.

Postprandial satiety and plasma amino acid, insulin, and glucose concentrations in six lean male subjects after the ingestion of three types of protein were compared and satiety was greater after the fish meal.

Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten.

It is concluded that varying the protein source in a mixed meal does not affect food behavior in healthy humans, probably because coingestion of carbohydrate and fat with protein buffers the kinetics of the physiologic mechanisms implicated in postprandial satiety after a protein load.

Varying the protein source in mixed meal modifies glucose, insulin and glucagon kinetics in healthy men, has weak effects on subjective satiety and fails to affect food intake

Varying the protein source in a mixed meal modifies glucose, insulin and glucagon kinetics in healthy men, but these variations in satiety-implicated factors have inconsistent effects on subjective satiety and fail to affect food intake.

Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance.

Large HP, HC or HF breakfasts led to detectable changes in hunger that were not of sufficient magnitude to influence lunch-time intake 5 h later, or EI for the rest of the day, but a single positive balance of each macronutrient can be buffered by oxidation and storage capacity.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion in response to nutrient ingestion in man: acute post-prandial and 24-h secretion patterns.

The increases in circulating GLP-1(7-36)amide and GIP levels following carbohydrate or a mixed meal are consistent with their role as incretins, and the more sustained rises observed in the daytime during the 24-h study are inconsistent with an anabolic role in lipid metabolism.

Effect of habitual dietary-protein intake on appetite and satiety

The hypothesis that the satiating effect of dietary protein varies inversely with habitual protein intake is supported, with significant correlations between satiety after the three meals and daily protein intake.

Comparative study of the effects of equal amounts of fat, protein, and starch on plasma cholecystokinin in man.

It is concluded that, in contrast to starch, fat and protein are potent stimuli for the release of CCK.

Weight, Protein, Fat, and Timing of Preloads Affect Food Intake