Thromboembolic complications after shoulder arthroscopy are rare and their cause has not been well determined. Heritable thrombophilia has been studied in relation to numerous clinical conditions, and it has been associated with thromboembolic complications after some orthopaedic surgeries, especially after total hip or knee arthroplasty. We report three patients who had deep vein thrombosis develop after shoulder arthroscopy. All three tested positive for heritable thrombophilia, a condition undetected until this complication occurred. This report highlights the possibility that unrecognized coagulation disorders might seriously influence the clinical outcome of minimally invasive surgery. We suggest heritable thrombophilia is a possible risk factor for or etiology of deep vein thrombosis after shoulder arthroscopy.