Case of a non‐24 h sleep–wake syndrome patient improved by phototherapy

  title={Case of a non‐24 h sleep–wake syndrome patient improved by phototherapy},
  author={T. Watanabe and Naofumi Kajimura and M. Kato and Masanori Sekimoto and Toru Hori and K. Takahashi},
  journal={Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
Polysomnography (PSG) and body temperature were examined in a patient with non‐24 h sleep–wake syndrome who responded to phototherapy. The patient was a 17‐year‐old male who had been suffering from a free‐running sleep–wake rhythm for 2 months. Phototherapy was administered to the patient while he was admitted to our hospital. This treatment immediately changed the free‐running sleep–wake and body temperature rhythm of the patient to the environmental 24‐h rhythm. On a polysomnography, total… 
Non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome improved by low-dose valproic acid: a case report
Low-dose valproic acid appears to be one of the effective means of entraining circadian rhythms in patients with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome, which in turn likely improves associated depressive symptoms.
Treatment outcome of non-24-hour sleep–wake rhythm disorder: a retrospective study of 24 consecutive cases in a sleep clinic
The very low “normalization” rate and the large number of patients with ongoing free-run who dropped out suggest that N24SWD is extremely refractory.
Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder
Control trials of light or melatonin are lacking in the treatment of non-24 among the sighted, but the use of both may be effective when the patients’ self-selected light/dark schedules are taken into account.
Advances in the pharmacological management of non-24-h sleep-wake disorder
The authors review the pharmacological therapies including exogenous melatonin and melatonin receptor agonists for the management of non-24 and introduce a historical report about the effects of melatonin on the phase shift and entrainment for blind individuals with the free-running circadian rhythm.
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Chronobiological Disorders: Current and Prevalent Conditions
This review contains an overview of current treatment options, including chronotherapy, timed bright light exposure, and administration of exogenous melatonin.
Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 20
A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on


Polysomnography and body temperature changes by phototherapy in a delayed sleep phase syndrome case
Polysomnography and body temperature in a patient with delayed sleep phase syndrome who responded to phototherapy and the regimen showed shortened sleep latency, decreased total sleep time and stages 1 and 2 sleep, and increased slow wave sleep.
Successful treatment of human non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
A case in which a non-24-h sleep-wake cycle appeared as a late complication of a more fundamental disturbance in the quality of sleep (difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings, nonrefreshing sleep) and was treated with thyroxine for borderline hypothyroidism, flurazepam and vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 treatment for sleep-wake rhythm disorders.
Vitamin B12 (VB12) was administered to two patients suffering for many years from different sleep-wake rhythm disorders, one of which was a 15-year-old blind girl suffering from a free-running sleep- wake rhythm (hypernychthemeral syndrome), and after administration of VB12 at the daily doses of 1.5 mg, the man suffering from delayed sleep phase syndrome was improved.
[Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome].
  • M. Kohsaka
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • 1998
Vitamin B12 and melatonin were reported to be effective in treating this syndrome and the mechanism of this syndrome has not been clarified.
Correction of non–24‐hour sleep/wake cycle by melatonin in a blind retarded boy
Melatonin convincingly entrained the endogenous rhythm to the appropriate chronological 24‐hour day in this 9‐year‐old, blind boy with severe mental retardation with a chronic sleep/wake disturbance.
Successful treatment of non - 24 - hour
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