OBJECTIVE To investigate therapeutic effects of minimally invasive arthroscopic internal fixation with plates and screws in treating tibial plateau fractures. METHODS A retrospective study from December 2006 to June 2010 was done on 69 patients with tibial plateau fractures. According to Schatzker classification, 5 patients were type I, 5 patients were type II, 25 patients were type III, 20 patients were type IV, 9 patients were type V and 5 patients were type VI. Thirty-six patients were treated with arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation, including 21 males and 15 females, ranging in age from 17 to 59 years (averaged, 34.2 years); another 33 patients were treated with small incision and fixed with plates and screws,including 19 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 18 to 62 years (averaged, 35.4 years). The operation time, blood loss during operation,drainage volume of blood, healing time, weight-bearing time and function of effected knee were compared between the two groups. RESULTS All the patients were followed up,and the duration ranged from 6 to 12 months (averaged, 10.3 months). All the patients had no complications such as infection, articular collapse, re-fracture and joint stiffness. There were no significant differences in weight-bearing time, complications and Rasmussen scores between two groups (P>0.05); but there were significant differences in the operative time, blood loss, drainage volume of blood, hospital stay time, the healing time between two groups (P<0.05). The results showed that arthroscopy-assisted technique was better than minimally invasive internal fixation in operation duration, blood loss during operation and the healing time. CONCLUSION Different types of fracture of tibial plateau should be treated with different surgical treatments. Arthroscopic technique for reduction of fractures, which has less influence on bony union and minimally invasive, and can provide a good clinical outcome.