Case Study Part 1: How to calculate appropriate deterministic long-term toxicity to exposure ratios (TERs) for birds and mammals.

Abstract

In the European Union, first-tier assessment of the long-term risk to birds and mammals from pesticides is based on calculation of a deterministic long-term toxicity/exposure ratio (TER(lt)). The ratio is developed from generic herbivores and insectivores and applied to all species. This paper describes two case studies that implement proposed improvements… (More)

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