Carrots and Rainbows: Motivation and Social Practice in Open Source Software Development

@article{Krogh2012CarrotsAR,
  title={Carrots and Rainbows: Motivation and Social Practice in Open Source Software Development},
  author={Georg von Krogh and Stefan Haefliger and Sebastian Spaeth and Martin W. Wallin},
  journal={MIS Q.},
  year={2012},
  volume={36},
  pages={649-676}
}
Open source software (OSS) is a social and economic phenomenon that raises fundamental questions about the motivations of contributors to information systems development. Some developers are unpaid volunteers who seek to solve their own technical problems, while others create OSS as part of their employment contract. For the past 10 years, a substantial amount of academic work has theorized about and empirically examined developer motivations. We review this work and suggest considering… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Carrots and Rainbows: An Empirical Comparison of Motivations of Open Source Software Contributors
TLDR
Results indicate that short-term and/or tangible motivations (carrots) and long-term, value-based factors (rainbows) influence OSS developers’ contribution likelihood, however, carrots are relatively more important.
Developer Management in FLOSS Projects - Theoretical Concepts and Empirical Evidence
TLDR
Examination of how sustainable commitment of new contributors can be identified at an early stage, how developers’ geographic dispersion affects their collaboration productivity, if the presence of reputable developers increases teamwork productivity and if mentoring is an appropriate means to bind developers in FLOSS projects suggest new ways and methods are derived.
Decentralized Collaboration of Open Source Software Development
TLDR
This is the first study, to the extent of my knowledge, to build and estimate a structural model to build a direct link between developer preferences and the choice of open source contribution, and shows that developers prefer to contribute to popular projects.
Women’s Participation in Open Source Software: A Survey of the Literature
TLDR
This paper systematically maps, aggregates, and synthesizes the state-of-the-art on women’s participation in OSS, focusing on women contributors’ representation and demographics, how they contribute, their motivations and challenges, and strategies employed by communities to attract and retain women.
A theory of the engagement in open source projects via summer of code programs
TLDR
An integrated engagement theory grounded in multiple data sources is devised to explain motivation and onboarding in this context and shows that OSS communities employ several strategies for planning and executing student participation, socially integrating the students, and rewarding student’s contributions and achievements.
Impact of Financial Benefits on Open Source Software Sustainability
TLDR
It is found that fair-terms, transparency and effective communication practices are essential to the sustainability of OSS projects, even with perceived asymmetric compensation.
On the Relationship between Newcomer Motivations and Contribution Barriers in Open Source Projects
TLDR
The results substantiate the hypothesis that newcomers' motivations mirror their mental models of the OSS project they are going to contribute to, and that the mental model determines the impact of contribution barriers.
Materializing Commons Based Peer Production Beyond Open Source Software – Explorative Insights from a Comparative Case Study
TLDR
It is shown that in general the CBPP framework is well-suited to explain open value creation related to idea generation and evaluation as well as to designing prototypes in these domains, however, several factors limit its actual implementation in domains beyond the conventional OSS domain.
An Empirical Study of Security Culture in Open Source Software Communities
TLDR
This empirical study explores the current security culture in the OSS development phenomenon using a survey instrument with six evaluation dimensions: attitude, behavior, competency, subjective norms, governance, and communication to understand the influence of security on participants' security behaviors and decision-making.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 197 REFERENCES
An empirical analysis of open source software developers' motivation using expectancy-valence theory
The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivations of individuals that are willing to join open source communities and voluntarily dedicate their effort and expertise for OSS development.
Toward an understanding of the motivation of open source software developers
  • Y. YeK. Kishida
  • Computer Science
    25th International Conference on Software Engineering, 2003. Proceedings.
  • 2003
TLDR
It is theorized that learning is one of the motivational forces that motivates people to participate in OSS communities, and is grounded in the learning theory of Legitimate Peripheral Participation and is supported by analyzing the social structure of O SS communities and the co-evolution between OSS systems and communities.
Open-Source Software Development
By reviewing the history of the open-source movement and highlighting recent research on its unique developmental processes, the author suggests that there are general lessons for anyone seeking to
Motivations for participating in Open Source Software Communities: Roles of Psychological Needs and Altruism
TLDR
This study investigates how personality traits namely psychological needs for autonomy and competence, and one’s altruism interact with motivations, and draws upon the Affective Event theory to submit that personality traits moderate the relationships between task effort and both external and identified motivations.
Understanding the Motivations, Participation, and Performance of Open Source Software Developers: A Longitudinal Study of the Apache Projects
TLDR
A theoretical model relating the motivations, participation, and performance of OSS developers is developed and it is suggested that past-performance rankings enhance developers' subsequent status motivations.
Motivation, Governance, and the Viability of Hybrid Forms in Open Source Software Development
TLDR
This paper inductively derives a framework for understanding participation from the perspective of the individual software developer based on data from two software communities with different governance structures.
The power of gifts: organizing social relationships in open source communities
TLDR
It is argued that the gift economy is important, not only because it creates openness, but also because it organizes relationships between people in a certain way.
Intrinsic motivation in open source software development
TLDR
It is shown that once OSS development is understood as the private provision of a public good, these features emerge quite naturally, and a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model is adapted to reflect key aspects of the OSS phenomenon.
Open source software: Motivation and restrictive licensing
Open source software (OSS) is an economic paradox. Development of open source software is often done by unpaid volunteers and the “source code” is typically freely available. Surveys suggest that
...
...