Carotid-cavernous fistulas.

@article{Ellis2012CarotidcavernousF,
  title={Carotid-cavernous fistulas.},
  author={Jason A. Ellis and Hannah E Goldstein and E. Sander Connolly and Philip M. Meyers},
  journal={Neurosurgical focus},
  year={2012},
  volume={32 5},
  pages={E9}
}
Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are vascular shunts allowing blood to flow from the carotid artery into the cavernous sinus. The characteristic clinical features seen in patients with CCFs are the sequelae of hemodynamic dysfunction within the cavernous sinus. Once routinely treated with open surgical procedures, including carotid ligation or trapping and cavernous sinus exploration, endovascular therapy is now the treatment modality of choice in many cases. The authors provide a review of… CONTINUE READING
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