The ultimate goal of carotid stenosis treatment is the long-term prevention of stroke. While a large number of studies focusing on patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis have been carried out, fewer data are available from trials on asymptomatic and low-risk patients. Currently existing information on the optimal management of these patients is inconclusive and contradictory. Our aim was to review previous major trials conducted on carotid disease with a main focus on asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. Efforts to present currently ongoing trials involving asymptomatic carotid patients, to survey recent studies determining patients' risk for future stroke or periprocedural events, as well as to summarize data on promising structural and functional variables and biomarkers predicting future stroke risk have been made.