Carotenoid Plasma Concentration, Immune Profile, and Plumage Ornamentation of Male Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)

  title={Carotenoid Plasma Concentration, Immune Profile, and Plumage Ornamentation of Male Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)},
  author={Nicola Saino and Riccardo Stradi and Paola Ninni and Elena Pini and Anders Pape M{\o}ller},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={441 - 448}
Carotenoids exert immunomodulating, immunostimulating, and antioxidant actions in mammals and are major determinants of coloration in animals. Honest advertisement models of sexual selection propose that male ornaments, including coloration, are reliable indicators of male quality. Because of their simultaneous effects on male coloration and immunity, carotenoids might mediate the hypothesized relationship between the expression of epigamic coloration and parasitism in vertebrates. We analyzed… 

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