Carotenogenesis gene cluster and phytoene desaturase catalyzing both three- and four-step desaturations from Rhodobacter azotoformans.

  title={Carotenogenesis gene cluster and phytoene desaturase catalyzing both three- and four-step desaturations from Rhodobacter azotoformans.},
  author={Jinhua Zhang and Lili Lu and Lijie Yin and Sheng-kun Xie and Min Xiao},
  journal={FEMS microbiology letters},
  volume={333 2},
A carotenogenesis gene cluster from the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter azotoformans CGMCC 6086 was cloned. A total of eight carotenogenesis genes ( crtA , crtI , crtB , tspO , crtC , crtD , crtE , and crtF ) were located in two separate regions within the genome, a 4.9 kb region containing four clustered genes of crtAIB - tspO and a 5.3 kb region containing four clustered genes of crtCDEF . The organization was unusual for a carotenogenesis gene cluster in purple… 
A single desaturase gene from red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus is responsible for both four- and five-step dehydrogenation of phytoene.
The experimental findings indicate that the enzymatic conversion of phytoene to lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene is catalyzed by this phy toene desaturase of S. pararoseus through consecutive dehydrogenation.
Multiplicity of carotene patterns derives from competition between phytoene desaturase diversification and biological environments
The results demonstrate that the desaturation patterns of carotene molecules in various biological environments cannot be fully inferred from phytoene desaturases classification but is governed both by evolutionary-linked variations in the des saturation rates and competition between desaturation and cyclisation steps.
Reconstruction of the Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway of Cronobacter sakazakii BAA894 in Escherichia coli
A gene cluster containing seven genes responsible for the yellow pigmentation in C. sakazakii BAA894 was identified and the major components of theyellow pigments were confirmed as zeaxanthin-monoglycoside and zeaxAnthin-diglycoside.
A unique low light adaptation mechanism in Rhodobacter azotoformans
In this paper, we reported for the first time that Rhodobacter azotoformans was capable of synthesizing a spectral variant of peripheral light‐harvesting complex (LH3), besides a high light form
Current and Potential Natural Pigments From Microorganisms (Bacteria, Yeasts, Fungi, Microalgae)
The answer is dual as processes using fungi, bacteria, or microalgae already provide carotenoids or phycocyanin at an industrial level and future trends involve combinatorial engineering, gene knock-out, and the production of niche pigments not found in plants.
Microbial Pigments From Bacteria, Yeasts, Fungi, and Microalgae for the Food and Feed Industries
The answer is dual, as processes using fungi, bacteria, or microalgae already provide carotenoids or phycocyanin at an industrial level and any combination of a new source and/ or new pigment requires a lot of experimental work, process optimization, toxicological studies, and regulatory approval.


Phytoene desaturase, CrtI, of the purple photosynthetic bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus, produces both neurosporene and lycopene.
It was concluded that neurosporene and lycopene are produced by a single phytoene desaturase in RVI: gelatinosus resulting in the synthesis of spheroidene and spirilloxanthin, and that there are no pathways for spirillOxanthin synthesis via spheoidene.
Functional Complementation in Escherichia coli of Different Phytoene Desaturase Genes and Analysis of Accumulated Carotenes
Three different phytoene desaturase genes, from Rhodobacter capsulatus, Erwinia uredovora, and Synechococcus PCC 7942, have been functionally complemented with a gene construct from E. uredovora
Early steps in carotenoid biosynthesis: sequences and transcriptional analysis of the crtI and crtB genes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and overexpression and reactivation of crtI in Escherichia coli and R. sphaeroides
The transcription initiation point is located and it is shown that R. sphaeroides possesses an oxygen-regulated CrtI-type phytoene desaturase gene that forms a transcriptional operon with crtB, and evidence for the existence of a crtIB operon is presented.
Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Photosynthetic Pigments in the Purple Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina
A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway.
Kinetic variations determine the product pattern of phytoene desaturase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus.
In bacteria and fungi, the degree of carotenoid desaturation is determined by a single enzyme, the CrtI-type phytoene desaturase, which is analyzed by heterologous complementations in Escherichia coli and by in vitro studies and demonstrated that high enzyme concentrations or low phy toene supply favor the formation of lycopene.
Nucleotide sequence, organization, and nature of the protein products of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus
The first DNA sequence of carotenoid genes from any organism is reported, encoding seven of the eight previously known carotanoid genes and a new gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium.
Structural and kinetics properties of a mutated phytoene desaturase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus with modified product specificity.
Pred analysis of the mutations of L208 indicated that the location is in a highly hydrophobic membrane-integrated region which is a good candidate for the substrate-binding site of the desaturase.
Evolution of carotene desaturation: the complication of a simple pathway.
  • G. Sandmann
  • Biology, Medicine
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
  • 2009
In the course of evolution of carotenogenesis from bacteria via cyanobacteria to plants, the simple situation of one enzyme for the entire reaction sequence from phytoene to all-trans lycopene changed to a more complex process.
The relationship between carotenoid biosynthesis and the assembly of the light-harvesting LH2 complex in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
Analysis of translation of the puc transcript and investigation of the fate of any resulting LH2 polypeptides by SDS/PAGE, Western-blot and pulse-chase experiments clearly demonstrated that, in the absence of coloured carotenoids, the LH2 alpha- and beta-polypeptide are synthesized but are rapidly turned over and do not become stably integrated into the membrane.
Complete DNA sequence, specific Tn5 insertion map, and gene assignment of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides
This study provides gene sequences and assignments based upon a comprehensive structural, spectroscopic, and biochemical analysis of a range of carotenoid biosynthetic mutants; in each mutation, the point of Tn5 insertion is determined accurate to 1 bp on the gene cluster.