Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low‐density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro

@article{Rashid2007CarnosineAI,
  title={Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low‐density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro},
  author={Imran Rashid and David van Reyk and Michael Jonathan Davies},
  journal={FEBS Letters},
  year={2007},
  volume={581}
}
Glycation Induced Physicochemical Changes in Low-Density Lipoprotein and Its Role in Promoting Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages along with Antiglycation Effect of Aminoguanidine
TLDR
It is proclaimed that LDL-AGEs formed by fructose may contribute to accelerated initiation of diabetes induced atherosclerosis via foam cells generation and aminoguanidine may have therapeutic potential against it.
Apolipoprotein A-I glycation by Glucose and Reactive Aldehydes Alters Phospholipid Affinity but Not Cholesterol Export from Lipid-Laden Macrophages
TLDR
It is demonstrated that glycation of lipid-free apoA-I, particularly late glycation, modifies its structure, its capacity to bind phospholipids and but not ABCA1- or ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Susceptibility of LDL and its subfractions to glycation
TLDR
The recognition that LDL glycation is at least as important as oxidation in atherogenesis may lead to improvements in understanding of its mechanism and how to prevent it.
Glycation as an atherogenic modification of LDL
TLDR
The recognition that LDL glycation is at least as important as oxidation in atherogenesis may lead to improvements in the understanding of its mechanism and how to prevent it.
L-carnosine and its Derivatives as New Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Vascular Complications of Diabetes.
TLDR
Available data on the efficacy of L-carnosine and its derivatives in preventing vascular complications in rodent models of diabetes and metabolic syndrome are presented and genetic findings providing evidence for the involvement of the carnosinase/L-c Carnosine system in the risk of developing diabetic nephropathy are discussed.
The Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products by Carnosine and Other Natural Dipeptides to Reduce Diabetic and Age-Related Complications.
TLDR
Of the peptides researched, carnosine is the most promising and has been shown to prevent AGE formations through reduction of blood glucose, prevention of early glycation, and even reversing previously formed AGEs.
Transforming dietary peptides in promising lead compounds: the case of bioavailable carnosine analogs
TLDR
The present paper intends to critically review the most recent studies oriented to obtaining carnosine derivatives, optimized in terms of reactivity with RCS, selectivity (no reaction with physiological aldehydes) and the pharmacokinetic profile (mainly through an enhanced resistance to carnosinase hydrolysis).
Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by foodstuffs.
TLDR
The development and investigation of AGE inhibitors, especially the natural anti-AGE agents without adverse effects, may provide a therapeutic approach for delaying and preventing premature aging and diabetic complications.
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Inhibition of LDL glycation by interception of the reactive aldehydes that induce LDL modification prevents lipid loading and model foam cell formation in murine macrophage cells and Carbonyl-scavenging reagents, such as hydrazines, may therefore help inhibit LDL Glycation in vivo and prevent diabetes-induced atherosclerosis.
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The results suggest that the earliest significant events in this system are metal ion-independent glycation (modification) of the protein component of LDL, whilst oxidative events only occur to any significant extent at later time points.
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It has been recently demonstrated that carnosine is a potent and selective scavenger of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, typical by-products of membrane lipids peroxidation and considered second messengers of the oxidative stress, and inhibits aldehyde-induced protein-protein and DNA-protein cross-linking in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in cardiovascular ischemic damage, in inflammatory diseases.
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TLDR
Results indicate that carnosine and such related compounds as Gly-His and Ala-His are effective anti-glycating agents for human Cu,Zn-SOD and that the effectiveness is based not only on high reactivity with carbonyl compounds but also on hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.
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