Carnivorous sponges

  title={Carnivorous sponges},
  author={Jean Vacelet and Nicole Boury‐Esnault},
EXTREMELY food-poor environments, such as the deep sea, place extraordinary demands on organisms with respect to feeding, resulting in modifications of the feeding strategies found in shallow waters. A general rule is that macrophagy becomes a better strategy than microphagous suspension-feeding1–3. The characteristics by which phyla are defined, nonetheless, remain unchanged in these adaptations. We present here an apparently unique example of a fundamentally different body plan, derived from… 

Diversity and evolution of deep-sea carnivorous sponges

It is suggested, given the important morphological adaptations of these sponges, their ambiguous relationships with extant families of poecilosclerids and the authors' rapidly increasing knowledge regarding their diversity, that it would be premature to drastically change the classification before having more information, especially of reproduction and molecular characters.

Cladorhiza corallophila sp. nov., a new carnivorous sponge (Cladorhizidae, Demospongiae) living in close association with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata (Scleractinia).

A new species of cladorhizid sponge is described, which shows a very peculiar mode of life: It always occurs in association with the scleractinian cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, and it lives in nutrient-rich areas and documents its carnivorous feeding behavior.

A new species of carnivorous sponge (Demospongiae: Cladorhizidae) from a Mediterranean cave

A cladorhizid sponge which has been shown to be carnivorous, is described as a new species of Asbestopluma, A. hypogea sp. nov. The sponge lives in a Mediterranean cave, 17 to 22 meters deep, between

Deep-sea sponges in a Mediterranean cave

The example of sponges shows that various general problems of deep-sea biology could be successfully addressed in the cave, and a highly unexpected result is that cladorhizids are non-filter-feeding "sponges" with a camivorous feeding habit.

The ecology and phylogeny of the mediterranean nausithoidae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

Knowing of habitat and ecology of the Mediterranean Nausithoidae is compiled and the relationships of the species are investigated through a combined approach of morphological and molecular character analysis, corroborated by studies of the life cycles and observations on the behaviour.

Bioluminescence in an Undescribed Species of Carnivorous Sponge (Cladorhizidae) From the Deep Sea

This work reports repeated observations of luminescence from six individuals of an undescribed carnivorous sponge species sampled near 4,000 m depth off Monterey Bay and discusses new ecological hypotheses of functional traits such as bioluminescence and carnivory in deep sea organisms.

Higginsia Ciccaresei sp. nov. (Porifera: Demospongiae) from a Marine Cave on the Apulian Coast (Mediterranean Sea)

  • M. PansiniG. Pesce
  • Biology
    Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • 1998
This is the second record of the genus Higginsia – which has a world-wide distribution – from the Mediterranean Sea and the spicule formation process seems to be affected by some of the peculiar characteristics of the ambient water, resulting in spicules of unusual shape and irregular surface.

Four new species of Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Northeast Pacific.

Four additional species of cladorhizid sponges are described from the Northeast Pacific, including two species of Asbestopluma and twospecies of Cladorhiza, including one from a chemosynthetic environment that appears to be using methane-oxidizing bacteria as a nutrient source.

A new carnivorous shallow-water sponge from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (Porifera, Poecilosclerida)

A new shallow-water representative of the carnviorous sponge genus Asbestopluma is described from the southernmost Antarctic region of McMurdo Sound, which is a white, thin, sparingly branched sponge fringed by filaments along its entire length.