Carnivorous sponges

  title={Carnivorous sponges},
  author={Jean Vacelet and Nicole Boury‐Esnault},
EXTREMELY food-poor environments, such as the deep sea, place extraordinary demands on organisms with respect to feeding, resulting in modifications of the feeding strategies found in shallow waters. A general rule is that macrophagy becomes a better strategy than microphagous suspension-feeding1–3. The characteristics by which phyla are defined, nonetheless, remain unchanged in these adaptations. We present here an apparently unique example of a fundamentally different body plan, derived from… 
Diversity and evolution of deep-sea carnivorous sponges
The carnivorous habit of feeding that has been discovered in a cavernicolous species of Cladorhizidae is probably general for all the representatives of this deep-sea family, which numbered
Cladorhiza corallophila sp. nov., a new carnivorous sponge (Cladorhizidae, Demospongiae) living in close association with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata (Scleractinia).
A new species of cladorhizid sponge is described, which shows a very peculiar mode of life: It always occurs in association with the scleractinian cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, and it lives in nutrient-rich areas and documents its carnivorous feeding behavior.
A new species of carnivorous sponge (Demospongiae: Cladorhizidae) from a Mediterranean cave
A cladorhizid sponge which has been shown to be carnivorous, is described as a new species of Asbestopluma, A. hypogea sp. nov. The sponge lives in a Mediterranean cave, 17 to 22 meters deep, between
Deep-sea sponges in a Mediterranean cave
The example of sponges shows that various general problems of deep-sea biology could be successfully addressed in the cave, and a highly unexpected result is that cladorhizids are non-filter-feeding "sponges" with a camivorous feeding habit.
The ecology and phylogeny of the mediterranean nausithoidae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)
Knowing of habitat and ecology of the Mediterranean Nausithoidae is compiled and the relationships of the species are investigated through a combined approach of morphological and molecular character analysis, corroborated by studies of the life cycles and observations on the behaviour.
Ability of mobile cells of the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Porifera, Demospongiae) to digest diatoms
Although sponges are known to host auto‐ and heterotrophic symbionts, this is the first report of their progressive digestion of endocellular diatoms up to the final fragmentation of their frustule.
First report of the carnivorous sponge Lycopodina hypogea (Cladorhizidae) associated with marine debris, and its possible implications on deep-sea connectivity.
The colonization of plastic debris by the protected sponges Lycopodina hypogea is reported for the first time, and it is suggested that marine debris might provide substrate for benthic species on otherwise unsuitable habitats.
Bioluminescence in an Undescribed Species of Carnivorous Sponge (Cladorhizidae) From the Deep Sea
This work reports repeated observations of luminescence from six individuals of an undescribed carnivorous sponge species sampled near 4,000 m depth off Monterey Bay and discusses new ecological hypotheses of functional traits such as bioluminescence and carnivory in deep sea organisms.
Four new species of Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Northeast Pacific.
Four additional species of cladorhizid sponges are described from the Northeast Pacific, including two species of Asbestopluma and twospecies of Cladorhiza, including one from a chemosynthetic environment that appears to be using methane-oxidizing bacteria as a nutrient source.
A new carnivorous shallow-water sponge from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (Porifera, Poecilosclerida)
A new shallow-water representative of the carnviorous sponge genus Asbestopluma is described from the southernmost Antarctic region of McMurdo Sound, which is a white, thin, sparingly branched sponge fringed by filaments along its entire length.