Carfentanil - from an animal anesthetic to a deadly illicit drug.

  title={Carfentanil - from an animal anesthetic to a deadly illicit drug.},
  author={Jolanta B. Zawilska and Katarzyna Kuczyńska and Wiktoria Kosmal and Katarzyna Markiewicz and Piotr Adamowicz},
  journal={Forensic science international},
The use of novel synthetic opioids as recreational drugs has become a public health concern as they are implicated in numerous fatal intoxications across the world. Synthetic opioids have played a major role in the United States opioid crisis and may contribute to a similar opioid epidemic in Europe. The most prominent group of designer opioids consists of fentanyl and its analogues. At present, carfentanil is the most dangerous fentanyl derivative. It was recently detected as an adulterant to… 
Blood concentrations of new synthetic opioids
This report provides quick access to the source articles quantifying novel synthetic opioids by searching the PubMed and Scopus databases and by using the Google search engine.
Which illicit drugs are injected in Oslo? A study based on analysis of drug residues in used injection equipment and self-reported information.
Analysis of the injection equipment proved useful as a non-invasive, rapid and accurate means to obtain detailed information on injected drugs in Oslo and supplement traditional PWID survey information.
Treatment of overdose in the synthetic opioid era.
The development of more effective reversal agents such as those described in this review is an essential component of a tripartite strategy to reduce the biopsychosocial impact of opioid misuse in the "synthetic era".
A comprehensive evaluation of the potential binding poses of fentanyl and its analogs at the µ-opioid receptor
Fentanyl and its analogs are selective agonists of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). Among novel synthetic opioids (NSOs), they dominate the recreational drug market and are the main culprits for the
Development of Novel Video-Based First Responder Opioid Hazard Refresher Training
The video series, available on YouTube, was tested with a small initial population, with findings suggesting key questions for a larger study focused on integration of the refresher training with existing programs to optimize retention and adoption of safety practices.


Carfentanil: a narrative review of its pharmacology and public health concerns
  • J. Leen, D. Juurlink
  • Medicine
    Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie
  • 2019
Its high potency and presumed high lipophilicity, large volume of distribution, and potential active metabolites have raised concerns about the management of people exposed to carfentanil as well as the safety of first responders.
Confirmation of Carfentanil, U-47700 and Other Synthetic Opioids in a Human Performance Case by LC-MS-MS.
This case demonstrates the need to supplement routine toxicological analyses with a sensitive methodology that can detect synthetic opioids in human performance cases where opioid use may be implicated and first report of a DUI cases where carfentanil, U-47700 and other synthetic opioids were confirmed and described in a human performance blood sample.
Misuse of Novel Synthetic Opioids: A Deadly New Trend
Novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) include various analogs of fentanyl and newly emerging non-fentanyl compounds and there is strong demand for their use, these drugs are being trafficked by organized crime.
Human deaths from drug overdoses with carfentanyl involvement—new rising problem in forensic medicine
The cases mentioned above show that carfentanyl exposure causes signs and symptoms similar to other opioid toxicity, and may even be fatal if appropriate treatment is not available, hence it is very important to draw forensic medicine expert's attention to new substances in drug trade.
Fentanyls continue to replace heroin in the drug arena: the cases of ocfentanil and carfentanil
This review provides information concerning chemistry, synthesis, prevalence, pharmacology, and toxicology, as well as the current legal status of these two fentanyl analogues, which are undeniably very dangerous opioid drugs.
Fatalities Involving Carfentanil and Furanyl Fentanyl: Two Case Reports.
Due to the history, scene photos, toxicological findings in blood and urine and analysis of the drug paraphernalia on one of the cases which identified carfentanil and furanyl fentanyl, fentanyl analogues were suspected.
Fatal overdoses involving carfentanil: A case series
There is an alarmingly high mortality rate associated with the abuse of carfentanil, and there are implications on law enforcement, first responders, and health care providers when dealing with this emerging illicit substance.
A Series of Deaths Involving Carfentanil in the UK and Associated Post-mortem Blood Concentrations.
The toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured support the necessity to ensure laboratory detection methods for carfENTanil and subsequent measurement are appropriate as concentrations below 0.3 ng/mL may be present in post-mortem blood.
Norcarfentanil: carfentanil misuse or remifentanil treatment?
PurposeSince the early 2010s, deaths due to the use of new synthetic opioids (NSO) including fentanyl and its analogs have been increasing dramatically. As fentanyl analogs bear strong structural
Recreational use of carfentanil – a case report with laboratory confirmation
The fentanyl derivative carfentanil, an animal tranquilizer, is one of the most potent opioids known (100 times more potent than fentanyl) [1]. Carfentanil obtained public attention related to its