Careful Climbing in the Miocene: The Forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and Humans Are Primitive

@article{Lovejoy2009CarefulCI,
  title={Careful Climbing in the Miocene: The Forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and Humans Are Primitive},
  author={C. Owen Lovejoy and Scott W. Simpson and Tim D. White and Berhane Abrha Asfaw and Gen Suwa},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={326},
  pages={70 - 70e8}
}
The Ardipithecus ramidus hand and wrist exhibit none of the derived mechanisms that restrict motion in extant great apes and are reminiscent of those of Miocene apes, such as Proconsul. The capitate head is more palmar than in all other known hominoids, permitting extreme midcarpal dorsiflexion. Ar. ramidus and all later hominids lack the carpometacarpal articular and ligamentous specializations of extant apes. Manual proportions are unlike those of any extant ape. Metacarpals 2 through 5 are… 

Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus

The last common ancestor of hominids and chimpanzees was therefore a careful climber that retained adaptations to above-branch plantigrady and would thus have been unique among known primates.

The Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: The Emergence of Upright Walking

The femur and pelvis of Ardipithecus ramidus have characters indicative of both upright bipedal walking and movement in trees, and they therefore bear little or no functional relationship to the highly derived suspension, vertical climbing, knuckle-walking and facultative bipedality of extant African apes.

The Hands of Miocene Hominoids

Late Miocene Eurasian great apes exhibit varying degrees (or modes) of suspension and orthograde adaptations, however, the hand anatomy that invokes such behaviors is not always morphologically identical across these apes, suggesting independent specialization for those behaviors.

The African ape-like foot of Ardipithecus ramidus and its implications for the origin of bipedalism

The ancestral condition from which humans evolved is critical for understanding the adaptive origin of bipedal locomotion. The 4.4 million-year-old hominin partial skeleton attributed to Ardipithecus

The Functional Anatomy of the Carpometacarpal Complex in Anthropoids and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Hominoid Hand

All hominids lack these specializations of the extant great apes, suggesting that vertical climbing was never a central feature of the authors' ancestral locomotor repertoire, and the reinforced carpometacarpus of vertically climbing African apes was likely appropriated for knuckle‐walking in concert with other novel potential energy dissipating mechanisms.

The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes

Evidence from Ardipithecus ramidus now suggests that the last common ancestor lacked the hand, foot, pelvic, vertebral, and limb structures and proportions specialized for suspension, vertical climbing, and knuckle-walking among extant African apes.

Behavioral and phylogenetic implications of a narrow allometric study of Ardipithecus ramidus.

  • E. SarmientoD. Meldrum
  • Biology
    Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen
  • 2011

The morphology and evolutionary history of the glenohumeral joint of hominoids: A review

Current understanding of glenohumeral joint functional morphology and its evolution throughout the Miocene and Pleistocene are reviewed, as well as highlighting the areas where a deeper study of this joint is still needed.

Australopithecus sediba Hand Demonstrates Mosaic Evolution of Locomotor and Manipulative Abilities

The hand of Australopithecus sediba, a rare example in the hominid fossil record, shows short fingers and a long thumb consistent with improved precision gripping while retaining strength for climbing, suggesting at least two distinct hand morphotypes around the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

The Upper Limb of Australopithecus sediba

The well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to understanding of this evolutionary transition from its use for both locomotion and prehension to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 50 REFERENCES

Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus

The last common ancestor of hominids and chimpanzees was therefore a careful climber that retained adaptations to above-branch plantigrady and would thus have been unique among known primates.

The Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: The Emergence of Upright Walking

The femur and pelvis of Ardipithecus ramidus have characters indicative of both upright bipedal walking and movement in trees, and they therefore bear little or no functional relationship to the highly derived suspension, vertical climbing, knuckle-walking and facultative bipedality of extant African apes.

The lorisiform wrist joint and the evolution of "brachiating" adaptations in the hominoidea.

Since hominoid-like features of the wrist joint are found in lorisines, but not in New World monkeys that practice arm-swinging locomotion, these features may have been evolved in both lorisine and large hominoids to enhance wrist mobility for cautious arboreal locomotion involving little or no leaping.

Orang-like manual adaptations in the fossil hominoid Hispanopithecus laietanus: first steps towards great ape suspensory behaviours

The retention of powerful grasping and palmigrady suggests that the last common ancestor of hominids might have been more primitive than what can be inferred on the basis of extant taxa, suggesting that pronograde behaviours are compatible with an orthograde bodyplan suitable for climbing and suspension.

The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes

Evidence from Ardipithecus ramidus now suggests that the last common ancestor lacked the hand, foot, pelvic, vertebral, and limb structures and proportions specialized for suspension, vertical climbing, and knuckle-walking among extant African apes.

Functional anatomy of the olecranon process in hominoids and plio-pleistocene hominins.

  • M. Drapeau
  • Geography
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2004
Homo and the fossils have olecranons that are clearly more proximally oriented than expected for a quadruped of their size, which suggests that Homo and Australopithecus used their TBM in a flexed position, a position most consistent with manipulatory activities.

Ardipithecus ramidus and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids

Ardipithecus ramidus indicates that despite the genetic similarities of living humans and chimpanzees, the ancestor the authors last shared probably differed substantially from any extant African ape.

New catarrhine phalanges from Rudabánya (Northeastern Hungary) and the problem of parallelism and convergence in hominoid postcranial morphology

Analysis of Miocene hominoid postcrania in general and phalanges in particular suggest that ecological constraints are of primary importance in determining broad patterns of morphology, though these can be distinguished from morphology based more directly on ancestry.

Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a New Middle Miocene Great Ape from Spain

The new skeleton reveals that early great apes retained primitive monkeylike characters associated with a derived body structure that permits upright postures of the trunk, and suggests that Pierolapithecus is probably close to the last common ancestor of great apes and humans.