Cardiovascular responses of embarrassment and effects of emotional suppression in a social setting.

@article{Harris2001CardiovascularRO,
  title={Cardiovascular responses of embarrassment and effects of emotional suppression in a social setting.},
  author={Christine R. Harris},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2001},
  volume={81 5},
  pages={
          886-97
        }
}
  • C. Harris
  • Published 1 November 2001
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
The cardiovascular effects of embarrassment and of attempts to suppress embarrassment were examined. In 2 studies, embarrassment was associated with substantial increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which monotonically increased over a 2-minute embarrassment period. In contrast, heart rate (HR) rose significantly during the 1st minute of embarrassment but returned to baseline levels during the 2nd minute. This pattern of reactivity may be distinctive. The effects of trying to… 
The social consequences of expressive suppression.
TLDR
The authors' analysis suggests that expressive suppression should disrupt communication and increase stress levels during social interactions, and this hypothesis was tested in unacquainted pairs of women.
The temporal dynamics of two response-focused forms of emotion regulation: experiential, expressive, and autonomic consequences.
TLDR
A strong overlap between the two suppression strategies in terms of their early impact on emotional responses is suggested, with physiological suppression showing a larger decrease in experience intensity and blood pressure than expressive suppression.
The temporal dynamics of cognitive reappraisal: cardiovascular consequences of downregulation of negative emotion and upregulation of positive emotion.
TLDR
The results indicate that cognitive reappraisal engenders adaptive hemodynamic profiles both during anticipation and during viewing of affective images depending on their valence and the regulatory goal.
Increased autonomic activation in vicarious embarrassment.
Interactions Between Emotion Regulation and Mental
Reappraisal and suppression are among the most commonly studied emotion regulation strategies and refer to the cognitive reframing of emotional events (reappraisal), and the behavioral inhibition of
The effects of naltrexone on repressive coping and disclosure of emotional material : a test of the opioid-peptide theory of repression/hypertension
A relationship between hypertension and repression has long been observed in the psychological literature. Those who ex�ibit repressive coping styles also tend to exhibit elevated blood pressure
Physiological and emotional responses to subjective social evaluative threat in daily life
TLDR
An important role is suggested for anxiety, embarrassment, and shame as emotional consequences of naturally occurring evaluative threat, especially for those who are more socially anxious.
Psychophysiological effects of emotional dissonance in a face-to-face service interaction
TLDR
Investigation of the psychophysiological short-term effects of emotional dissonance in a face-to-face service interaction and the moderating role of gender and neuroticism yielded that gender and Neuroticism partly moderated the association between emotional cognitive dissonance and participants' Psychophysiological response.
Fear of negative evaluation augments negative affect and somatic symptoms in social-evaluative situations
The aim of this study was to determine whether fear of negative evaluation (FNE) moderates effects of eye contact on mood, bodily symptoms and physiological activity during social-evaluative
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES
Composure at Any Cost? The Cognitive Consequences of Emotion Suppression
We frequently try to appear less emotional than we really are, such as when we are angry with our spouse at a dinner party, disgusted by a boss’s sexist comments during a meeting, or amused by a
Emotional suppression: physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior.
TLDR
Emotional suppression reduced expressive behavior and produced a mixed physiological state characterized by decreased somatic activity and decreased heart rate, along with increased blinking and indications of increased sympathetic nervous system activity.
Hiding feelings: the acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion.
TLDR
Physiologically, suppression had no effect in the neutral film, but clear effects in both negative and positive emotional films, including increased sympathetic activation of the cardiovascular system.
Effects of nonverbal dissimulation on emotional experience and autonomic arousal.
TLDR
The findings support theories of emotion that assume that expressive responses serve a self-regulatory as well as a social-communicative function, and suggest that the self-regulation is mediated neurally, rather than via a process of self-attribution.
The Roles of Self-Esteem and Social Interaction in Embarrassment
TLDR
This experiment investigated the circumstances that lead to embarrassment and tested two theories of embarrassment, one based on social interaction, the other based on self-esteem, which were most consistent with the interaction theory.
Changes in non‐verbal behaviour during embarrassment
Embarrassment was induced experimentally in a videotaped interview by a failure of meshing (an interviewer revealed something unexpected about himself which was designed to embarrass the
Self presentation and cardiovascular reactivity.
  • T. Hartley, G. Ginsburg, K. Heffner
  • Psychology
    International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
  • 1999
Cardiovascular Responding during Anger and Fear Imagery
TLDR
Analysis of change in heart rate and systolic blood pressure showed significant effects for intensity only, which provides further support for the concept of physiological differentiation in human emotion.
Cardiovascular Differentiation of Happiness, Sadness, Anger, and Fear Following Imagery and Exercise1
TLDR
Sadness was unique in that systolic pressure and heart rate were virtually as high when subjects were still as when they were actually moving, and was the one emotional state that seemed to interfere with the cardiovascular adjustments normally associated with exercise.
Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.
TLDR
The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion.
...
...