Cardiovascular mortality and calcium and magnesium in drinking water: An ecological study in elderly people

  title={Cardiovascular mortality and calcium and magnesium in drinking water: An ecological study in elderly people},
  author={S{\'e}bastien Marque and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Jacqmin-Gadda and Jean-François Dartigues and Daniel Commenges},
  journal={European Journal of Epidemiology},
Background: Previous studies found relations between cardiovascular mortality and minerals in drinking water, but the major works considered water hardness or neglected the differences between adults and elderly. Drinking water is an important source of calcium in the elderly particularly because of increased needs and decreased consumption of dairy products. Methods: We collected informations about all deaths (14,311) occurring in 69 parishes of the South–West of France during 7 years (1990… 
Relationship between Tap Water Hardness, Magnesium, and Calcium Concentration and Mortality due to Ischemic Heart Disease or Stroke in the Netherlands
No evidence is found for an overall significant association between tap water hardness, magnesium or calcium concentrations, and IHD mortality or stroke mortality in subjects with low dietary magnesium intake.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the main causes of mortality and morbidity in the industrialised countries and their main risk factors are hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol abuse,
Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Mortality from Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease and Drinking Water Hardness
This study provides statistical evidence of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of drinking water, which is stronger in cerebrovascular disease than in ischemic heart disease, is more pronounced for women than for men, and is more apparent with magnesium than with calcium concentration levels.
Dietary calcium and magnesium intake and mortality: a prospective study of men.
This population-based, prospective study of men with relatively high intakes of dietary calcium and magnesium showed that intake of calcium above that recommended daily may reduce all-cause mortality.
Review of epidemiological studies on drinking water hardness and cardiovascular diseases
  • S. Monarca, F. Donato, I. Zerbini, R. Calderon, G. Craun
  • Medicine
    European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology
  • 2006
Information from epidemiological and other studies supports the hypothesis that a low intake of magnesium may increase the risk of dying from, and possibly developing, cardiovascular disease or stroke, and not removing magnesium from drinking water, or in certain situations increasing the magnesium intake from water, may be beneficial.
Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-Water: Public Health Significance
The outputs of an unprecedented group of experts assembled by the World Health Organization to address the role and possible health benefit of calcium and magnesium in drinking water are documents.
The Regional Association of the Hardness in Well Waters and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural Finland
The findings of present study suggest that certain CHD risk factors tend to cluster in eastern Finland, and shows that geographical variation of AMI incidence is associated with elements from natural environment like Mg or water hardness in local ground water.
Magnesium and Calcium in Drinking Water
It is shown that magnesium content in hearts from cadavers of those who died of heart disease were much less than controls, and cadaver hearts from people who had lived in areas with hard drinking water had higher amounts of magnesium than cadaVER hearts from soft-water areas.


Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and cardiovascular mortality.
Results from previous studies suggesting that a high magnesium level in drinking water reduces the risk for death from ischemic heart disease, especially among men, although the possible importance of confounding factors needs further evaluation.
Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease.
There is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan, an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health.
Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction in women.
The results suggest that magnesium and calcium in drinking water are important protective factors for death from acute myocardial infarction among women.
Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from hypertension.
Components of drinking water and risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly.
The relation between aluminum, fluorine, calcium, and pH in drinking water and the risk for cognitive impairment was studied using data collected in 1988-1989 in a population-based survey of 3,777
Association Between Calcium Ingested from Drinking Water and Femoral Bone Density in Elderly Women: Evidence from the EPIDOS Cohort
The consumption of calcium‐rich mineral water may be of interest, especially in older women who consume little calcium from dairy products, and that supplied by drinking water and bone density measured at the femoral neck by dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry.
Serum calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc and risk of cardiovascular death.
High serum copper and low serum zinc are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality whereas no association was found with serum calcium and magnesium and mortality risk.
Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to ischemic heart disease mortality among postmenopausal women.
It is suggested that a higher intake of calcium, but not of vitamin D or milk products, is associated with reduced ischemic heart disease mortality in postmenopausal women, and reduced risk may be achievable whether the higher intake is attained by diet, supplements, or both.
Relation between mortality from cardiovascular disease and treated water supplies: variations in states and 163 largest municipalities of the United States.
  • H. Schroeder
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Medical Association
  • 1960
In the United States variations from state to state in death rates from cardiovascular diseases have been unexplained on dietary, racial, or social bases. One variable environmental influence to
Magnesium in drinking water supplies and mortality from acute myocardial infarction in north west England.
No evidence was found of an association between magnesium concentrations in drinking water supplies and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and the hypothesis that magnesium is the key water factor in relation to mortality from heart disease was not supported.