Cardiovascular effects of ketamine in humans with cervical or lumbar epidural blockade.


To examine the effect of sympathectomy induced by epidural blockade on the cardiovascular effects of ketamine anesthesia, the authors compared the changes in arterial blood pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) following intravenous administration of ketamine in patients who had cervical epidural anesthesia (n = 18), lumbar epidural anesthesia (n = 16), or… (More)


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