Prognostic value of heart valve calcifications for cardiovascular events in a lung cancer screening population
Cardiovascular calcification is a commonly observed but incompletely understood mechanism of increased atherosclerotic plaque instability and accelerated aortic valve stenosis. Traditional histological staining and imaging techniques are nonspecific for the type of mineral present in calcified tissues, information that is critical for proper validation of in vitro and in vivo models. This review highlights current gaps in our understanding of the biophysical implications and the cellular mechanisms of valvular and vascular calcification and how they may differ between the two tissue types. We also address the hindrances of current cell culture systems, discussing novel platforms and important considerations for future studies of cardiovascular calcification.