beta-Phenylethylamine increased mean aortic blood pressure, total peripheral vascular resistance, left ventricular dP/dt, and (dP/dt)/P in chloralose-anesthetized dogs. Pretreatment with phentolamine reduced the increases in aortic blood pressure and total peripheral vascular resistance produced by beta-phenylethylamine, whereas, the effects of beta-phenylethylamine on left ventricular dP/dt and (dP/dt)/P were abolished by propranolol. beta-Phenylethylamine pretreatment, but increased both after phentolamine pretreatment. Furthermore, both the cardiac and vascular effects of beta-phenylethylamine were abolished by desipramine. These results indicate that beta-phenylethylamine exerts both positive inotropic and vasoconstrictory effects, probably by releasing endogenous norepinephrine from the adrenergic nerve endings.