Cardiotonic effect of Apocynum venetum L. extracts on isolated guinea pig atrium

@article{Irie2008CardiotonicEO,
  title={Cardiotonic effect of Apocynum venetum L. extracts on isolated guinea pig atrium},
  author={Kaoru Irie and Takahiro Sato and Ippei Tanaka and Jun-ichiro Nakajima and Maiko Kawaguchi and Toshiyuki Himi},
  journal={Journal of Natural Medicines},
  year={2008},
  volume={63},
  pages={111-116}
}
The effects on guinea-pig heart muscle of extracts of Apocynum venetum L. leaf, root, stem, old stem and Venetron—a polyphenol-rich extract of leaves—were studied by recording the mechanical activity and heart rate of isolated right atria. Cymarin—a cardiac glycoside—was also determined in A. venetum extracts by LC–MS/MS analysis. All extracts examined here showed a weak cardiotonic effect, i.e., induced a contractile response of the isolated atria and increased the pulse at a concentration of… 
Cardiotonic effects of cardiac glycosides from plants of Apocynaceae family
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The mechanisms of action of various CGs, particularly the cardenolides present in Apocynaceae plants are discussed in this article, which have the potential to be developed as an alternative or adjunct therapy for the management of heart failure.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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