Cardinalis: The History of a Canonical Concept

@article{Kuttner1945CardinalisTH,
  title={Cardinalis: The History of a Canonical Concept},
  author={Stephan G. Kuttner},
  journal={Traditio},
  year={1945},
  volume={3},
  pages={129 - 214}
}
It is commonly known that in the canonical sources of ancient and early medieval times many bishops, priests and deacons throughout the Latin Church were called cardinales, long before that term came to be used exclusively, or even primarily, for a specific group of dignitaries in the Church of Rome. Historians do not agree, however, as to the original meaning of the word in the language of the ancient Church. Nor do they, as a rule, explain with sufficient clearness in what sense it was first… 
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