Cardiac vagal tone: A physiological index of stress

@article{Porges1995CardiacVT,
  title={Cardiac vagal tone: A physiological index of stress},
  author={Stephen W. Porges},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  year={1995},
  volume={19},
  pages={225-233}
}
  • S. Porges
  • Published 1 June 1995
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
Vagal modulation of resting heart rate in rats: the role of stress, psychosocial factors, and physical exercise
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This paper focuses on rat studies that have explored the effects of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise on vagal modulation of resting HR, and results are discussed with regard to individual differences in resting vagal tone, cardiac stress reactivity and arrhythmia vulnerability.
Direct measurement of vagal tone in rats does not show correlation to HRV
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Although it is found that average vagal activity is increased during inspiration compared to expiration, this respiratory-linked signal was not correlated with HRV either, pointing to the need for a re-interpretation of the link between HRV and “vagal tone”.
Central autonomic integration of psychological stressors: Focus on cardiovascular modulation
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There is new evidence in the current issue of this Journal supporting the role of VNS in the modulation of gastrointestinal functions.
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a non-invasive index of ‘brain-heart’ interaction in stress
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It seems that the study of the RSA, as a non-invasive index of ‘brain-heart’ communication, could provide important information on the pathway linked to mental and physical health.
Correlation between the motility of the proximal antrum and the high‐frequency power of heart rate variability in freely moving rats
TLDR
It is aimed to test the hypotheses that in freely moving rats HF‐HRV power is correlated to proximal antral motility and can be altered by high levels of circulating estrogen and vagal‐selective treatments known to affect antrals motility.
The Role of Baseline Vagal Tone in Dealing with a Stressor during Face to Face and Computer-Based Social Interactions
TLDR
The collected results highlighted a significant effect of the baseline vagal tone on vagal suppression and some remarks on SES to be deepen in further research were raised.
Intra-Individual Variability in Vagal Control Is Associated With Response Inhibition Under Stress
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It is suggested that flexibility in Vagal control is supported by tonic vagal control, but this flexibility also uniquely relates to adaptive cognition under stress.
Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety
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References

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Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion.
TLDR
A review of research indicates that baseline levels of cardiac vagaltone and vagal tone reactivity abilities are associated with behavioral measures of reactivity, the expression of emotion, and self-regulation skills.
Lactate and hyperventilation substantially attenuate vagal tone in normal volunteers. A possible mechanism of panic provocation?
TLDR
This work assessed parasympathetic nervous system activity by measuring vagal tone during treatments known to produce panic symptoms: sodium lactate administration and hyperventilation and found a marked reduction in vagaltone during both procedures.
Newborn pain cries and vagal tone: parallel changes in response to circumcision.
TLDR
Vagal tone, as measured by the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia extracted from heart period data, was significantly reduced during the severe stress of circumcision, and these reductions were paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries, emphasizing the potential role of vagal control of the autonomic nervous system during stress.
Changes in heart period, heart-period variability, and a spectral analysis estimate of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in response to pharmacological manipulations of the baroreceptor reflex in cats.
TLDR
Changes in heart period, heart-period variance (HPV), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during manipulations of the baroreceptor reflex in anesthetized cats suggest that the spectral estimate of RSA, V, is particularly sensitive to blood pressure induced reflexive changes in vagal efferent influences on the heart.
Hemodynamic regulation: investigation by spectral analysis.
TLDR
It is found that respiratory frequency fluctuations in HR are parasympathetically mediated and that blood pressure fluctuations at this frequency result almost entirely from the direct effect of centrally mediated HR fluctuations, and the sympathetic nervous system appears to be too sluggish to mediate respiratory frequency variations.
Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia: Physiological Basis, Quantitative Methods, and Clinical Implications
TLDR
Of the many observable physiological oscillations, the oscillations in the heart rate pattern associated with respiration are the most relevant to psychophysiological research and may be justified by the facts that neurophysiology justifies the measurement of the amplitude of respiratory sinhythmia.
Time-series analysis of heart rate variability during submaximal exercise. Evidence for reduced cardiac vagal tone in animals susceptible to ventricular fibrillation.
TLDR
Exercise elicited a greater reduction in cardiac vagal tone in animals known to be susceptible to ventricular fibrillation in animals with healed anterior myocardial infarctions.
Vagal Responsiveness to Gavage Feeding as an Index of Preterm Status
TLDR
This study represents the first documentation that small changes in cardiac vagal tone during gavage feeding, previously imperceptible to clinicians and researchers, may be quantitatively extracted from the ECG and provide an important index of clinical status.
Changes in heart period, heart period variability, and a spectral analysis estimate of respiratory sinus arrhythmias during aortic nerve stimulation in rabbits.
TLDR
The results suggest that V is sensitive to manipulations of vagal influences on the heart, and often responds in a different manner from heart period and HPV.
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