Cardiac-specific external paths for lidocaine, defined by isoform-specific residues, accelerate recovery from use-dependent block.


Local anesthetic antiarrhythmic drugs block voltage-gated Na(+) channels from the cytoplasmic side. In addition, cardiac Na(+) channels can be also blocked by the membrane-impermeant local anesthetic QX via external paths not present in skeletal muscle or brain channels. Introduction of cardiac isoform-specific residues into wild-type skeletal muscle or… (More)


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