Cardiac physiology and clinical efficacy of dietary fish oil clarified through cellular mechanisms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

  title={Cardiac physiology and clinical efficacy of dietary fish oil clarified through cellular mechanisms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids},
  author={Peter L. McLennan},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
  • P. McLennan
  • Published 4 April 2014
  • Biology, Medicine
  • European Journal of Applied Physiology
Reduced cardiac mortality and morbidity have long been observed in association with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish consumption, without clear physiological explanation. This review seeks to identify mechanisms of action based on evidence: of physiological effects, active components and effective intakes. Fish oil pleiotropic effects reveal actions that are either intrinsic: effects on cardiac… 
This review will suggest recommendation for dietary intake of fish and fish oil as ω-3 supplements for cardiovascular disease risk reduction and examine the limitations of the current data.
Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Counters Cardioprotective Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice: Unconventional PUFA Protection
A novel impact of ALA is revealed on cardioprotective dysfunction in T2D mice, unrelated to caveolins/cavins, mitochondrial, or stress kinase modulation, although evidence suggests inflammatory involvement.
Cardiac Arrhythmia Prevention in Ischemia and Reperfusion by Low-Dose Dietary Fish Oil Supplementation in Rats.
The efficacy of low-dose fish oil demonstrates biological plausibility for nutritional ω-3 fatty acid-mediated cardioprotection and suggests that effectiveness in human clinical trials may be obscured by failure to exclude fish eaters.
DHA-Rich Fish Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index in Healthy Adults and Slows Resting Heart Rate without Altering Cardiac Autonomic Reflex Modulation.
In young healthy adults, dietary achievable doses of ω-3 DHA-rich fish oil exerted a direct slowing effect on resting HR, without compromising the HR response to either dominant sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation.
Cardiac contractile dysfunction, during and following ischaemia, is attenuated by low-dose dietary fish oil in rats
Ischaemia-induced contractile dysfunction in rats is limited from fish oil doses equivalent to regular consumption of fish in the human diet, highlighting plausible and clinically relevant physiological changes that rationalise nutritional conditioning of the heart with DHA for on-going cardioprotection.
Omega-3 Index and Anti-Arrhythmic Potential of Omega-3 PUFAs
The purpose of this updated review is to focus on the novel cellular and molecular effects of omega-3 PUFAs, in the context of the mechanisms and factors involved in the development of cardiac arrhythmias; to provide results of the most recent studies on the omega- 3 PUFA anti-arrhythmic efficacy and to discuss the lack of the benefit in relation to omega-2 PUFA status.


Modulation of enzymatic activities by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support cardiovascular health.
Myocardial membrane fatty acids and the antiarrhythmic actions of dietary fish oil in animal models
The preferential accumulation of DHA in myocardial cell membranes, its association with arrhythmia prevention, and the selective ability of pure DHA to prevent ventricular fibrillation all point to DHA as the active component of fish oil.
Effects of fish-oil supplementation on myocardial fatty acids in humans.
The results of the present study show that dietary n-3 fatty acids are rapidly incorporated into human myocardial phospholipids at the expense of arachidonic acid during high-dose fish-oil supplementation.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiac Biopsies From Heart Transplantation Patients: Correlation With Erythrocytes and Response to Supplementation
RBC EPA-DHA was highly correlated with cardiac EPA+DHA; the RBC omega-3 response to supplementation was similar to that of the heart; RBCs are easily collected and analyzed and they have a less variable FA composition than plasma.
Dietary fish oil dose- and time-response effects on cardiac phospholipid fatty acid composition
It is shown that low doses of FO produce marked changes in myocardial DHA levels; maximal incorporation takes up to 28 d to occur; and while erythrocytes are a good indicator of tissue n−3 incorporation in stable diets, they vary greatly in their time course and pattern of incorporation.
Myocardial function, ischaemia and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a membrane basis
Dietary fish oil produces changes in cardiac function that might contribute to cardiovascular health benefits in humans and does so by modifying cardiac membranes within a dose range achievable in the human diet.
Prevention of cardiac arrhythmia by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and their mechanism of action.
The role of marine fish oil (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of fatal ventricular arrhythmia has been established in experimental animals. Prevention of arrhythmias arising at the
Heart rate variability and fatty acid content of blood cell membranes: a dose-response study with n-3 fatty acids.
The study showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on HRV in healthy men, suggesting an antiarrhythmic effect of the substance, while no such effect was observed in healthy women.