Cardiac pacing, 1960-1985: a quarter century of medical and industrial innovation.

  title={Cardiac pacing, 1960-1985: a quarter century of medical and industrial innovation.},
  author={Kirk Jeffrey and Victor Parsonnet},
  volume={97 19},
Eugene Braunwald1 has compared the intense activity in cardiology between 1950 and 1990 to the systolic phase of the heartbeat. In the present paper, we discuss one important aspect of the broader transformation of cardiovascular medicine: the development of pacemaker technology to treat bradyarrhythmias. (Tachypacing and the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, innovations of the 1980s, are beyond the scope of this discussion.) We are particularly interested in the sources of innovation in… 

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