Cardiac pacing, 1960-1985: a quarter century of medical and industrial innovation.

@article{Jeffrey1998CardiacP1,
  title={Cardiac pacing, 1960-1985: a quarter century of medical and industrial innovation.},
  author={Kirk Jeffrey and Victor Parsonnet},
  journal={Circulation},
  year={1998},
  volume={97 19},
  pages={
          1978-91
        }
}
Eugene Braunwald1 has compared the intense activity in cardiology between 1950 and 1990 to the systolic phase of the heartbeat. In the present paper, we discuss one important aspect of the broader transformation of cardiovascular medicine: the development of pacemaker technology to treat bradyarrhythmias. (Tachypacing and the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, innovations of the 1980s, are beyond the scope of this discussion.) We are particularly interested in the sources of innovation in… 

Figures from this paper

A paradigm shift in cardiac pacing therapy?

TLDR
P pacing therapy, although effective, continues to have important limitations, and further refinements in the longevity and size of devices, lead biomaterials, and microprocessors seem inevitable.

Continuous cardiac pacing for 53 years

The history of cardiac pacing in the young and a look to the future

TLDR
Although cardiac resynchronization pacing has been around for nearly 2 decades, this review also introduces and discusses the early results of His-bundle pacing and left bundle branch pacing and some of the potential applicability of this technology for children.

History of cardiac pacing and defibrillation in the young

TLDR
The earliest years of cardiac pacing predate the birth of many current pediatric cardiac electrophysiologists and understanding this history of successful collaboration between pioneering physicians and engineering partners allows us to marvel at the developments that were to follow rapidly over the next 50 years.

Lessons From the First Patient with an Implanted Pacemaker:

TLDR
On October 8, 1958 the world’s first pacemaker implantation was performed at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, and surgeon A ◦ ke Senning considered this to be the beginning of the era of clinical pacing.

Brief History of Cardiac Arrhythmias Since the End of the Nineteenth Century:

  • B. Surawicz
  • Biology
    Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
  • 2003
The conditions for sustained reentry were established in the course of the early experimental studies by Mines,89 Schmitt and Erlanger,90 and Wenckebach and Winterberg.34 These studies led to the

Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers: The Next Evolution in Pacemaker Technology.

TLDR
Improvements in battery life, device miniaturization, catheter-based delivery tools, and advanced programming have made leadless cardiac pacemakers a viable option and a concept from the past, has been revitalized to address these complications.

CARDIAC PACEMAKERS

TLDR
The intrinsic and relative clinical efficacy of cardiac pacemakers in current clinical indications is assessed to find out whether scientific or clinical arguments might justify differences in market prices.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 182 REFERENCES

Permanent pacing of the heart: 1952 to 1976.

Cardiac pacing--from then to now.

TLDR
In the past 20 years, science has change the package, the power source, pacing mode, electrodes, and leads of pacemakers; it has improved their reliability and longevity, their programming, telemetry, and instrumentation.

Pursuing the perfect pacemaker.

Physiologic Pacing

  • S. Furman
  • Medicine
    Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE
  • 1980
TLDR
The overall term for this variety of atrio-ventricular pacing has grown to be, over the past year or two, "physiologic pacing," which can be assumed to mean a technique which provides an approximation of the normal A-V sequence.

Cardiac pacing in the 1980s: treatment and techniques in transition.

The Proliferation of Cardiac Pacing: Medical, Technical, and Socioeconomic Dilemmas

TLDR
answer to these challenges are badly needed, but largely unobtainable, partly because innovations in pacemakers have come along at such an amazing rate that full evaluation of these accomplishments has not been completed, and partly because the clinical efficacy of a certain pacemaker is hard to prove.

North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE)

TLDR
A natural affiliation between these diagnosticians of conduction system disorders and those involved in pacemaker implantation and follow-up has evolved, albeit without formal recognition.

Cardiac pacing in retrospect.

A MYOCARDIAL ELECTRODE FOR LONG‐TERM PACEMAKING

TLDR
It has long been known that the heart will contract in response to repetitive electrical stimuli, and clinical application of this observation was first suggested by Walshe’ in 1862, but attempts to apply this approach to patients with chronic and complete heart block quickly revealed that electrical stimulation of the heart on a long-term basis presented considerable difficulties.
...