Cardiac output and venous return as interdependent and independent variables.

@article{Badeer1981CardiacOA,
  title={Cardiac output and venous return as interdependent and independent variables.},
  author={Henry S. Badeer},
  journal={Cardiology},
  year={1981},
  volume={67 2},
  pages={65-72}
}
Under steady states the heart pumps whatever it receives and receives whatever it pumps. In other words, cardiac output (CO) and venous return (VR) are equal and the distinction between the two seems unnecessary. However, under nonsteady states the two are temporarily unequal and the distinction becomes significant. VR varies directly with the difference in pressure between the end of systemic capillaries and the right ventricle during filling and inversely with the total resistance of the… CONTINUE READING