Cardiac design in lower vertebrates: what can phylogeny reveal about ontogeny?

Abstract

In very few instances can the cardiovascular systems of adult ‘lower’ vertebrates serve asdirect models for development in ‘higher’ vertebrates, primarily because numerous evolutionary specializations for preferential distribution of cardiac output between systemic tissues and gas exchange, organs occur in the highly derived circulation of most extant lower… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/BF01939885

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