Cardiac and aortic arch anomalies in the offspring of vitamin A deficient rats correlated with similar human anomalies.

@article{Wilson1950CardiacAA,
  title={Cardiac and aortic arch anomalies in the offspring of vitamin A deficient rats correlated with similar human anomalies.},
  author={J. Gordon Wilson and Josef Warkany},
  journal={Pediatrics},
  year={1950},
  volume={5 4},
  pages={
          708-25
        }
}
Fetal and newborn rats from mothers fed vitamin A deficient diets prior to and during pregnancy exhibited some degree of malformation in 75% of the cases. Twenty-eight of 64 severely abnormal young studied after serial sectioning showed congenital cardiovascular malformations. These consisted of defects in the interventricular septum and in the aortico-pulmonary septum; and of various aortic arch anomalies, such as retroesophageal subclavian artery, right aortic arch, double aortic arch… 

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