Cardiac adrenoceptors: physiological and pathophysiological relevance.

@article{Brodde2006CardiacAP,
  title={Cardiac adrenoceptors: physiological and pathophysiological relevance.},
  author={Otto-Erich Brodde and Heike Bruck and Kirsten Leineweber},
  journal={Journal of pharmacological sciences},
  year={2006},
  volume={100 5},
  pages={
          323-37
        }
}
At present, nine adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes have been identified: alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-, alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, alpha(2C)-, beta(1)-, beta(2)-, and beta(3)AR. In the human heart, beta(1)- and beta(2)AR are the most powerful physiologic mechanism to acutely increase cardiac performance. Changes in betaAR play an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF). Thus, due to increased sympathetic activity in CHF, betaAR are chronically (over)stimulated, and that results in beta(1)AR… CONTINUE READING
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