Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Promote Myocardial Fibrosis and Reverse Remodeling of the Left Ventricle
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intracoronary and intravenous injection of autologous progenitor cells for homing to the acutely infarcted but reperfused myocardium in pigs. METHODS Myocardial infarction was induced in 11 anesthetized pigs by 60-min balloon inflation in the mid LAD. After balloon deflation, reperfusion was verified and autologous CD31(+) progenitor cells, or bone marrow mononuclear cells, labeled with PKH67, were injected either intracoronarily (n=6) or intravenously (n=3). By autopsy, 4-5 days after induction of infarction, tissue from the heart and other organs was obtained for fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS In the heart, PKH(+) cells were detected throughout the reperfused infarcted myocardium, and the number of PKH(+) cells was significantly higher after intracoronary than after intravenous injection (3.2+/-0.55 vs. 0.33+/-0.17 cells/high-power field/10(6) cells injected, P=.01). Few PKH(+) cells were detected in the spleen, lung, mesenteric lymph node, and bone marrow. In an additional animal with a coil placed in the mid LAD, progenitor cells were not detected in the infarcted myocardium or in the normal myocardium. CONCLUSION Autologous mononuclear and CD31(+) cells from bone marrow accumulated in the infarcted myocardium when injected intracoronarily or intravenously after established reperfusion, and the accumulation of cells was significantly greater after intracoronary injection than after intravenous injection. Accumulation of PKH(+) cells did not appear in the normal myocardium or in the nonreperfused infarcted myocardium. PKH(+) cells were detected in spleen, lung, and bone marrow but to a lesser degree than in the infarcted myocardium.