Cardiac Effects of Water Immersion in Healthy Volunteers.

  title={Cardiac Effects of Water Immersion in Healthy Volunteers.},
  author={Donald Eugene Smith and Alan D. Kaye and Sameh K. Mubarek and Barry A. Kusnick and Muhammad Jalil Anwar and Ina M. Friedman and Bobby Dean Nossaman},
  volume={15 1},
To evaluate cardiac chamber size and ejection fraction during head-out immersion of patients in the semisitting position in neutral temperature water bath, 12 volunteers were studied using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). In this open, controlled, prospective clinical study, left ventricular end-systolic, end-diastolic volumes, and ejection fraction were measured in 12 adult awake healthy volunteers using TTE with the patient in a semisitting position pre-, during, and postimmersion in the… CONTINUE READING