Progress in the development of suture materials results in a lower rate of fistulas. Modern techniques for the diagnosis of leakage (contrast study, CT-scan) allow for an early diagnosis and adequate therapy: if possible conservative therapy with drainage of the abscess, adapted antibiotic therapy and parenteral and enteral nutrition are the best methods. In the case of necrosis of the transplant, reoperation permits enables extra time for reconstruction. All the technical possibilities of reconstruction must be known. It is necessary to apply prophylactic precautions to avoid leakage of the anastomosis on the oesophagus.