Carcinogens in Food: Opportunities and Challenges for Regulatory Toxicology

  title={Carcinogens in Food: Opportunities and Challenges for Regulatory Toxicology},
  author={Dirk W. Lachenmeier},
  journal={The Open Toxicology Journal},
  • D. Lachenmeier
  • Published 27 March 2009
  • Medicine
  • The Open Toxicology Journal
The risk of developing cancer from carcinogens occurring in food is of widespread interest to scientific researchers, food policymakers and food surveillance institutions, as well as to the general public. When evaluating the risk of carcinogenic food contaminants or carcinogenic foodstuff per se (e.g., alcoholic beverages), the level of scientific evidence should be reflected more clearly. In the past, interest often focused on ‘fashionable’ agents with only moderate levels of evidence of… 

Tables from this paper

The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

The data about the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment.

Benzene in infant carrot juice: further insight into formation mechanism and risk assessment including consumption data from the DONALD study.

NMR-Spectroscopy for Nontargeted Screening and Simultaneous Quantification of Health-Relevant Compounds in Foods: The Example of Melamine

NMR was found to be suitable for routine nontargeted and targeted analyses of foods, and its use will significantly increase food safety.

Detailed exposure assessment of dietary furan for infants consuming commercially jarred complementary food based on data from the DONALD study.

This paper will provide a detailed exposure assessment for babies consuming these foods considering different intake scenarios, and Mitigative measures to avoid furan in complementary foods should be of high priority for risk management.

Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

Benzene Contamination in Heat-Treated Carrot Products Including Baby Foods~!2010-01-15~!2010-05-11~!2010-06-23~!

Food products containing carrots were analyzed for benzene contamination using headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Of 82 commercial samples, 88% contained benzene above

Quantitative Determination of Acetaldehyde in Foods Using Automated Digestion with Simulated Gastric Fluid Followed by Headspace Gas Chromatography

A first-exposure estimation resulted in a daily acetaldehyde intake of less than 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight from food, which is considerably lower than the exposures from alcohol consumption or tobacco smoking.

Potential Antagonistic Effects of Acrylamide Mitigation during Coffee Roasting on Furfuryl Alcohol, Furan and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

The four heat-induced coffee contaminants—acrylamide, furfuryl alcohol (FA), furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)—were analyzed in a collective of commercial samples as well as in Coffea arabica

Cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer for broadly applicable small-molecule detection

Non-covalent, proximity-induced energy transfer from small-molecule toxicants to organic fluorophores bound in the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin is reported, which has significant potential in the development of new turn-on detection schemes.

Benzol in Lebensmitteln – ein Überblick

Results show that benzene is carcinogenic to humans causing acute non-lymphocytic leukemia in foods and humans are mainly exposed by ambient air, but benzene may also occur in drinking water and foods.



Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

  • J. O'BrienA. Renwick A. Wolfreys
  • Environmental Science
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2006

Carcinogens in food: priorities for regulatory action

A pragmatic possible approach to the prioritization of chemical carcinogens occurring as food contaminants is described, based on the carcinogenic risk to the population, to derive an index referred to as the Population Carcinogenic Index.

Analysis of heat-induced contaminants (acrylamide, chloropropanols and furan) in carbohydrate-rich food

The aim of this publication is to give an overview of analytical approaches for the determination of acrylamide, furan and chloropropanols in foodstuffs.

Current criteria to establish human carcinogens.

Towards a harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in the European Union.

  • R. Crebelli
  • Medicine
    Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita
  • 2006
EFSA concluded that a MOE of 10000 or greater is associated with a low risk and low priority for risk management actions, and the approach proposed does not replace the ALARA.

Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism.

The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment, and alcohol consumption has been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention.

Use of Carcinogenicity Bioassays in the IARC Monographs

  • V. Cogliano
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2006
Proposed revisions to the Preamble to the IARC Monographs make some changes in the criteria for evaluating carcinogenicity in experimental animals to reflect the greater confidence that can be placed in Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) studies.