multicenter, uncontrolled trial of single-agent sorafenib in patients with relapsed or refractory, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
- C Chen, R Ju, L Zhu, J Li, W Chen, DC Zhang
- J Clin Oncol
Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In this study, we investigated the combination of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) and sorafenib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro and in vivo to test whether CAI enhances the antitumor effects of sorafenib and reduces its side effects. The combination index (CI) showed that coadministration of CAI and sorafenib synergistically inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells (Lewis lung carcinoma, A549, and NCI-H1975 cells). Cell death as a result of the combination treatment was attributed to apoptosis, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, combination therapy induced the accumulation of mitochondrial-associated reactive oxygen species, as well as depolarization of mitochondrial and reduced NANOG (homeobox protein NANOG) mRNA and protein expression. Basic fibroblast growth factor, a stimulator of NANOG, was applied to identify the possible mechanism. The addition of basic fibroblast growth factor followed by combined treatment may stimulate NANOG expression and synchronously rescue the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. C57BL/6J mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma were randomized to receive vehicle (polyethylene glycol 400), CAI (30 mg/kg), low-dose sorafenib (SFB-L; 10 mg/kg), high-dose sorafenib (SFB-H; 30 mg/kg), or a CAI and SFB-L combination. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the combination group, and the efficacy of combination treatment was equivalent to that of the SFB-H monotherapy group. Furthermore, the combination group had reduced side effects compared with the SFB-H group, as indicated by weight preservation in mice. Our study illustrates that CAI enhances the antitumor activity of sorafenib in NSCLC and provides a novel strategy for NSCLC treatment.