Carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life

@article{Hartman2005CarbonaceousCA,
  title={Carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life},
  author={Hyman Hartman and Michael A. Sweeney and Michael A. Kropp and JOHN S. Lewis},
  journal={Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere},
  year={2005},
  volume={23},
  pages={221-227}
}
Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites can be separated into three fractions. The first component, the fraction that is insoluble in chloroform and methanol, has a part which is of interstellar origin (1). The other two fractions (chloroform-soluble hydrocarbons and methanol-soluble polar organics) are hypothesized to have been synthesized on a planetoid body (2). We propose that the polar organics, i.e., amino acids, were synthesized close to its surface by the radiolysis of hydrocarbons… Expand

Figures from this paper

High molecular diversity of extraterrestrial organic matter in Murchison meteorite revealed 40 years after its fall
TLDR
It is demonstrated that a nontargeted ultrahigh-resolution molecular analysis of the solvent-accessible organic fraction of Murchison extracted under mild conditions allows one to extend its indigenous chemical diversity to tens of thousands of different molecular compositions and likely millions of diverse structures. Expand
Formation of replicating saponite from a gel in the presence of oxalate: implications for the formation of clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life.
TLDR
It is shown that oxalate is a robust catalyst in the crystallization of saponite, an Al- and Mg-rich, trioctahedral 2:1 layer silicate, from a silicate gel at 60°C and ambient pressure and has implications for the understanding of the origin of life. Expand
A XANES and Raman investigation of sulfur speciation and structural order in Murchison and Allende meteorites
Insoluble organic matter (IOM) and hydrothermally treated IOM extracted from two carbonaceous chondrites, Murchison and Allende, was studied using sulfur K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edgeExpand
Biogenic Catalysis of Soil Formation on Mars?
  • J. Bishop
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere
  • 2004
TLDR
A remote sensing goal of upcoming missions should be to determine if nanophase iron oxide minerals, clay silicates and carbonates are present in the martian surface material, and their presence on Mars would invoke a need for further investigation and sample return from these sites. Expand
Squeezing blood from a stone: Inferences into the life and depositional environments of the Early Archaean
A limited, fragmentary and altered sedimentary rock record has allowed few constraints to be placed on a possible Early Archaean biosphere, likewise on attendant environmental conditions. This studyExpand
Enceladus: Cassini observations and implications for the search for life
Aims. The recent Cassini discovery of water vapor plumes ejected from the south pole of the Saturnian satellite, Enceladus, presents a unique window of opportunity for the detection of extant life inExpand
Subsumed complexity: abiogenesis as a by-product of complex energy transduction
TLDR
It is posit that different forms of energy input can exhibit different degrees of dissipation complexity within an identical chemical medium and the maximum capacity for organic chemical complexification across molecular and macromolecular scales subsumes, rather than emerges from, the underlying complexity of energy transduction processes that drive their production and modification. Expand
Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate
Single-crystal neutron diffraction, ab initio calculations and Raman spectroscopy are applied to understand the structure and hydrogen bonding of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, a hitherto poorlyExpand

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES
ON THE ORIGIN OF CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES *
  • E. Anders
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1963
TLDR
To reconstruct their history, the authors must try to learn more about the nature of these bodies, that is, their size, number, and location, and the chemical and physical processes that produced the detailed structural and compositional features of the meteorites. Expand
Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite.
TLDR
The principal aliphatic components of the Murchison meteorite are found to be a structurally diverse suite of C15 to C30 branched alkyl-substituted mono-, di-, and tricyclic alkanes. Expand
Origin of organic matter in early solar system—I. Hydrocarbons
Abstract Organic compounds in the Orgueil and Murray carbonaceous chondrites were examined by combination gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Above C 10 , normal paraffins are the principalExpand
Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes in solvent-extractable organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites
Solvent extractions were done on the carbonaceous chondrites Murray, Murchison, Orgueil and Renazzo, using CCl_4 and CH_3OH. Between 2 and 10% of the total carbon in these meteorites is extractableExpand
Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite
TLDR
The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite confirms the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound, and provides the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organo-synthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of pre-biotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies. Expand
Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite
TLDR
The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species, and are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. Expand
Isotopic composition of carbonaceous-chondrite kerogen: evidence for an interstellar origin of organic matter in meteorites
Abstract Stepwise combustion has revealed systematic patterns of isotopic heterogeneity for C, H and N in the insoluble organic fraction (m-kerogen) from the Orgueil and Murray carbonaceousExpand
Carbonaceous chondrites. II - Carbonaceous chondrite phyllosilicates and light element geochemistry as indicators of parent body processes and surface conditions
Petrographic observations and analyses of CM matrices are consistent with their origin as in situ low temperature (<400°K) aqueous alteration products in a parent body regolith. At least fourExpand
Organic Compounds in Meteorites
Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of CO, H2, and NH3 in the solar nebula, at 360� to 400�K and (4 to 10) x 10-6 atm. The onset of these reactions wasExpand
A possible origin for sulfates and sulfur in meteorites
Abstract Two possible origins for the sulfur compounds found in the carbonaceous chondrites are investigated here: oxidation of troilite by dissolved oxygen, and oxidation of troilite by diluteExpand
...
1
2
3
...