Carbon monoxide in alveolar air as an index of exposure to cigarette smoke.

  title={Carbon monoxide in alveolar air as an index of exposure to cigarette smoke.},
  author={Roger G. Rawbone and C A Coppin and Abraham Guz},
  journal={Clinical science and molecular medicine},
  volume={51 5},
1. A rapid method for the analysis of CO in expired air has been developed, which is suitable for use in studies of smoking. 2. The Bohr equation has been used to calculate the mean alveolar CO partial pressure (PA,CO). 3. The values of PA,CO obtained are highly correlated with direct measurements of venous carboxyhaemoglobin (r = 0-96). 4. The method will distinguish between populations of smokers and non-smokers, and can allow the changes of CO in a smoker throughout a 12 h period to be… 

Figures from this paper

Evaluation of methods used to estimate inhaled dose of carbon monoxide.

Estimation of carbon monoxide exposure discriminated between non-smokers and smokers as well as measurements of COHb, and should prove a valuable method for validating reported smoking habits of people attending smoking advisory centres and for epidemiological surveys of smoking.

The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide is influenced by airflow obstruction.

It is shown that the estimation of carboxyhaemoglobin from exhaled carbon monoxide measurements can be inaccurate in patients with severe airflow obstruction, and in these patients, the direct measurement of carboxesyhaeemoglobin seems advisable in clinical practice.

Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and inhaling habits in cigarette smokers.

The data from this study may help to explain some of the anomalous epidemiological results regarding the relationship between self-described inhaling habits and the development of diseases associated with smoking, such as coronary heart disease and lung cancer.

Cigarette Smoke Inhalation

The pattern of cigarette smoke inhalation wss studied in 19 smokers with respiratory inductive plethysmography, a reliable unobtrusive ventilatory monitoring device, finding no means of predicting the relatively small number of habitual smokers likely to develop chronic airflow limitation.

Evaluation of methods to estimate cigarette smoke uptake

Data on smoke generation and nicotine retention in cigarette butts correlated poorly with all other measures of smoke uptake, and there were positive correlations between increases in heart rate and plasma nicotine concentrations and between percentage carboxyhemoglobin and exhaled carbon monoxide.

Immediate response to cigarette smoke.

Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers, and Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

Is smoker/nonsmoker segregation effective in reducing passive inhalation among nonsmokers?

Results indicate that by comparison to a control group, subjects seated in adjacent smoking/ nonsmoking environments were not only exposed to similar ambient levels of CO, but also show similar physical and physiological reactions to their exposure in the form of coordination test scores, expired CO, and blood carboxyhemoglobin.

The Act of Smoking

Evidence is presented which indicates that individual smokers smoke to a constant amount of work, which suggests that the product may have an important role with its pressure drop showing an inverse relationship to puff volume during smoking.



Use of carboxyhaemoglobin levels to predict the development of diseases associated with cigarette smoking.

The ratio of the COHb boost to the CO yield of a cigarrette may reflect depth of inhalation more accurately than a smoker's self-assessment, and the suggested indices depend less on the time of the blood test and on the daily pattern of smoking than aCOHb level alone.

Variations in Carboxyhaemoglobin Levels in Smokers

Three experiments on smokers have been performed to determine variations in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) throughout the day and night and whether a random measurement of COHb gives a

Comparison of Effect on Tobacco Consumption and Carbon Monoxide Absorption of Changing to High and Low Nicotine Cigarettes

The findings support the view that smoking behaviour is modified to regulate nicotine intake, and the least harmful cigarettes for heavy smokers may be those with a high, rather than low, nicotine yield.

The carbon monoxide dissociation curve of human blood

COHb dissociation curves have been determined in the absence of oxygen, at three different C02 pressures, for the blood of three normal subjects, and are compared with the corresponding 02Hb curves.


The method is sensitive enough to be used for the analysis of solutions of blood containing less than 1% carboxyhaemoglobin.

Carbon monoxide and human health.

To prevent adverse effects on human health as exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) increases adequate programs and policies must be adopted, and a possible role of CO in motor vehicle accidents is suggested by data showing higher levels of COHb in drivers involved in accidents than in policemen and in other occupationally exposed populations.

Ventilation standards for use in artificial respiration.

  • E. Radford
  • Medicine
    Journal of applied physiology
  • 1955

The spectrophotometric measurement of carboxyhemoglobin.