Carbon dioxide rebreathing in respiratory protective devices: influence of speech and work rate in full-face masks

@article{Smith2013CarbonDR,
  title={Carbon dioxide rebreathing in respiratory protective devices: influence of speech and work rate in full-face masks},
  author={Carmen L Smith and Jane L Whitelaw and Brian Davies},
  journal={Ergonomics},
  year={2013},
  volume={56},
  pages={781 - 790}
}
Carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing has been recognised as a concern regarding respirator use and is related to symptoms of discomfort, fatigue, dizziness, headache, muscular weakness and drowsiness. Previous investigations are limited by small sample size and have not evaluated the relationship between CO2 inhalation and phonic respiration (breathing during speech) in respiratory protective devices (RPDs). A total of 40 workers trained in the use of RPDs performed a graded exercise test on a… 
Carbon dioxide increases with face masks but remains below short-term NIOSH limits
TLDR
Although, significant increase in CO2 concentrations are noted with routinely used face-masks, the levels still remain within the NIOSH limits for short-term use, therefore, there should not be a concern in their regular day-to-day use for healthcare providers.
Impact of Low Filter Resistances on Subjective and Physiological Responses to Filtering Facepiece Respirators
TLDR
Filtering facepiece respirators with filter resistances at, or below, this level may not impact the wearer differently physiologically or subjectively from those withfilter resistances only slightly above this threshold at low-moderate work rates over one hour.
Face Masks and the Cardiorespiratory Response to Physical Activity in Health and Disease
TLDR
There is no current evidence to support sex-based or age-based differences in the physiological responses to exercise while wearing a face mask, and the available data suggest that negative effects of using cloth or surgical face masks during physical activity in healthy individuals are negligible and unlikely to impact exercise tolerance significantly.
Impact of respiratory protective devices on respiration: Implications for panic vulnerability during the COVID-19 pandemic.
TLDR
This research supports the idea that panic-prone individuals may be at higher risk of respiratory discomfort when wearing RPDs, thereby reducing their tolerance for these devices.
The Effect of Surgical Mask Use in Anaerobic Running Performance
TLDR
The use of a surgical mask increased blood lactate concentration, sympathetic autonomic modulation, perceived exertion, perceived stress, and decreased blood oxygen saturation in 50 and 400 m running tests, and the use of acid buffers such as bicarbonate or sodium citrate would be a recommended ergogenic strategy.
Effect of Surgical Masks on Cardiopulmonary Function in Healthy Young Subjects: A Crossover Study
TLDR
Wearing surgical masks during aerobic exercise showed certain negative impacts on cardiopulmonary function, especially during high-intensity exercise in healthy young subjects, and provides an important recommendation for wearing a mask at a pandemic during exercises of varying intensity.
Alcohol like Syndrome: Influence of Increased CO2 Concentration in the respiration air
TLDR
The discussion revealed the formation of 2 moles of hydrogen ions as a result of elevated CO2 partial pressure in the rebreathing air as a consequence of closed systems or covering heads with towels or blanket during sleep.
“Exercise with facemask; Are we handling a devil's sword?” – A physiological hypothesis
TLDR
Contrary to the earlier thought, no evidence exists to claim the facemasks during exercise offer additional protection from the droplet transfer of the virus, and it is recommended social distancing is better than facem masks during exercise and optimal utilization rather than exploitation of facemask during exercise.
Computer vision-based objective evaluation of increase in breathing resistances of respirators on human subjects
TLDR
The experimental results show that the swing angle ratio duringExhalation and inhalation are effective for representing exhalation resistances and inhalance resistances respectively.
Using a Standard Respiratory Air Filtering Device during Moderate Intensity Exercise does not Affect Post Exercise Pulmonary Function
TLDR
It was concluded that using a RAFD during moderate intensity medium duration exercise does not affect post exercise pulmonary function.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 85 REFERENCES
Speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults.
TLDR
Two qualities of speaking-related dyspnea--air hunger and physical exertion--are the same as those reported for many other types of nonspeech Dyspnea conditions and, therefore, may share the same physiological mechanisms.
Physiological impact of the N95 filtering facepiece respirator on healthcare workers.
TLDR
In healthy healthcare workers, FFR did not impose any important physiological burden during 1 hour of use, at realistic clinical work rates, but the FFR dead-space carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were significantly above and below, respectively, the ambient workplace standards, and elevated P(CO2) is a possibility.
Physiological response to alterations in [O2] and [CO2]: relevance to respiratory protective devices
illions of workers rely on respiratory protective devices (RPD) because of workplace inhalation hazards. Many workers also engage in increased physical activity while wearing RPDs. Demand is placed
The physiological cost of wearing a disposable respirator.
  • J. G. Jones
  • Medicine
    American Industrial Hygiene Association journal
  • 1991
TLDR
Heart rate showed a dose-related increase as work intensity increased and was significantly greater in the respirator trials at heavy levels of work and during recovery, andSystolic blood pressure showed a biphasic response to respirator use, being significantly lower at rest and higher at high level of work.
Work performance when breathing through different respirator exhalation resistances.
TLDR
The results of this study suggest that the only practical expiratory resistance level limitation is the reduction in performance that will be acceptable to the end users.
Peak Inhalation Air Flow and Minute Volumes Measured in a Bicycle Ergometer Test
TLDR
The high PIAF values observed in this study can have a significant impact on the performance of respirators, and perhaps need to reconsider how respiratory protective devices should be tested.
Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during pressure support ventilation with airway management system (BiPAP) devices.
TLDR
There is clinical evidence that significant CO2 rebreathing occurs with the standard BiPAP system, and this drawback can be overcome by using a non-rebreathing valve, but only at the expense of greater expiratory resistance.
A method for measuring the CO2 dead space volume in facial visors and respiratory protective devices in human subjects.
TLDR
The improved RIP based method can accurately assess Vd and mean FI,CO2 in facial visors and respiratory protective devices in standardized work situations and repeatability was determined from duplicate recordings during the wearing of a welding visor.
Physiologic effects of respirator dead space and resistance loading.
TLDR
The results suggest that prospective workers who must utilize respirators should be observed during exercise as well as at rest and that a respirator dead space and inspiratory resistance should not produce a significant heart rate change but should lead to adaptation of the inspiratory: expiratory time ratio.
Respirator Physiological Effects under Simulated Work Conditions
TLDR
The results suggest that most individuals, including persons with mild respiratory impairments, will physiologically tolerate either type of respirator at low to moderate exertion tasks, and using respirators may be feasible on a widespread basis if necessary for maintaining essential services in the face of widespread concern about an infectious or terrorist threat.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...