Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum warming

  title={Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum warming},
  author={Richard E. Zeebe and James C. Zachos and Gerald R. Dickens},
  journal={Nature Geoscience},
About 55 million years ago global surface temperatures increased by 5–9 ∘C within a few thousand years, following a pulse of carbon released to the atmosphere. Analysis of existing data with a carbon cycle model indicates that this carbon pulse was too small to cause the full amount of warming at accepted values for climate sensitivity. 
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Carbon sequestration during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum by an efficient biological pump
Globally increased temperatures and a perturbation of the carbon cycle and biosphere characterized the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum about 55.9 million years ago, but its effect on ocean
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The abrupt warming event 56 million years ago, known as the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), was associated with the large scale release of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean–atmosphere
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Deep-Sea Temperature and Circulation Changes at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
Foraminiferal magnesium/calcium ratios indicate that bottom waters warmed by 4° to 5°C, similar to tropical and subtropical surface ocean waters, implying no amplification of warming in high-latitude regions of deep-water formation under ice-free conditions.
Methane oxidation during the late Palaeocene thermal maximum
Carbon isotope records across the Latest Palaeocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) display by a remarkable delta 13 C excursion of at least -2.5 per mil that occurred within 10X10 3 yrs. Thermal dissociation
An Ancient Carbon Mystery
Sudden global warming 55 million years ago provides evidence for high climate sensitivity to atmospheric CO, but the source of the carbon remains enigmatic.
Abrupt deep-sea warming, palaeoceanographic changes and benthic extinctions at the end of the Palaeocene
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A Transient Rise in Tropical Sea Surface Temperature During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
Using mixed-layer foraminifera, it is found that the combined proxies imply a 4° to 5°C rise in Pacific SST during the PETM, which would necessitate a rise in atmospheric pCO2 to levels three to four times as high as those estimated for the late Paleocene.
Carbon addition and removal during the Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum: basic theory with a preliminary treatment of the isotope record at ODP Site 1051, Blake Nose
  • G. Dickens
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 2001
Abstract The late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) was a brief interval at c. 55 Ma characterized by a −2.5 to −3‰ shift in the δ13C of global carbon reservoirs. The geochemical perturbation
On the duration of the Paleocene‐Eocene thermal maximum (PETM)
The Paleocene‐Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) is one of the best known examples of a transient climate perturbation, associated with a brief, but intense, interval of global warming and a massive