Carbon: The Ultimate Electrode Choice for Widely Distributed Polymer Solar Cells

  title={Carbon: The Ultimate Electrode Choice for Widely Distributed Polymer Solar Cells},
  author={Gisele Alves dos Reis Benatto and B{\'e}renger Roth and Morten Madsen and Markus H{\"o}sel and Roar R. S{\o}ndergaard and Mikkel J{\o}rgensen and Frederik C Krebs},
  journal={Advanced Energy Materials},
As mass‐produced, low‐cost organic electronics enter our everyday lives, so does the waste from them. The challenges associated with end‐of‐life management must be addressed by careful design and carbon‐based electrodes are central to these developments. Here, the reproducible production of vacuum‐, indium tin oxide (ITO)‐, and silver‐free solar cells in a fully packaged form using only roll‐to‐roll processing is reported. Replacing silver with carbon as electrode material significantly lowers… 

Improving the Operational Stability of PBDTTTz-4 Polymer Solar Cells Modules by Electrode Modification†

PBDTTTz‐4 is employed in the ambient manufacturing of fully Roll‐to‐Roll organic solar cell modules. Modules are manufactured using a novel silver nanowire electrode or a previously reported carbon

The Critical Choice of PEDOT:PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll‐to‐Roll Processed OPVs

The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll‐to‐roll

Roll-to-roll printing of polymer and perovskite solar cells: compatible materials and processes

The exploration and harnessing of the renewable sources of energy, in addition to that of the conventional sources, has become significantly prominent with the increasing global energy demands for

The Organic Power Transistor: Roll‐to‐Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

We present fl exible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20m min (cid:1) 1 ) roll-to-roll (R2R) fl exographic printing [1] of the drain (D) and source (S) electrode structures directly on

High efficiency, fully inkjet printed organic solar cells with freedom of design

The organic photovoltaics field is maturing and reaching a technology readiness level where the focus is on developing large scale fabrication methods. In this light, fully inkjet printed organic

Organic Photovoltaics’ New Renaissance: Advances Toward Roll‐to‐Roll Manufacturing of Non‐Fullerene Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics

Non‐fullerene acceptors (NFAs) have recently breathed new life into organic photovoltaic (OPVs), achieving breakthrough photovoltaic conversion efficiencies. Unlike conventional fullerene acceptors,

High‐Volume Processed, ITO‐Free Superstrates and Substrates for Roll‐to‐Roll Development of Organic Electronics

The initial development of the replacement of indium‐tin‐oxide for the flexible carrier materials is described and a description of how roll‐to‐roll processing development led to simplification from an initially complex make‐up to higher performing materials through a more simple process is presented.

The balance between efficiency, stability and environmental impacts in perovskite solar cells: a review

  • A. Urbina
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Physics: Energy
  • 2020
Photovoltaic technology is progressing very fast, both in a new installed capacity, now reaching a total of more than 400 GW worldwide, and in a big research effort to develop more efficient and

Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Semitransparent Solar Cell Electrodes: A Life Cycle Perspective.

The life cycle analysis of AgNWs confirms that they provide an avenue to low-impact semitransparent electrodes and that the toxicological and environmental benefits are significant.



Efficient decommissioning and recycling of polymer solar cells: justification for use of silver

Large 100 m long polymer solar cell modules were installed in a solar park using fast installation (>100 m min−1) and operated for 5 months ensuring a meaningful energy return factor (ERF > 1)

Current Collecting Grids for ITO‐Free Solar Cells

Indium‐tin‐oxide (ITO) free polymer solar cells prepared by ink jet printing a composite front electrode comprising silver grid lines and a semitransparent PEDOT:PSS conductor are demonstrated. The

Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

Inline printing and coating methods have been demonstrated to enable a high technical yield of fully roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cell modules. We demonstrate generality by employing

All printed transparent electrodes through an electrical switching mechanism: A convincing alternative to indium-tin-oxide, silver and vacuum

Here we show polymer solar cells manufactured using only printing and coating of abundant materials directly on flexible plastic substrates or barrier foil using only roll-to-roll methods. Central to

OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools

The analysis shows that ITO- and silver-free options are clearly advantageous in terms of energy embedded over the traditional modules, and that encapsulation must balance satisfying the protection requirements while having at the same time a low carbon footprint.

25th Anniversary Article: Rise to Power – OPV‐Based Solar Parks

It is found that a high voltage installation where solar cells are all printed in series enables an installation rate in Watts installed per minute that far exceed any other PV technology in existence.

Economic assessment of solar electricity production from organic-based photovoltaic modules in a domestic environment

The primary driver for development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies is the prospect of very low cost module manufacture leading to affordable solar electricity. This paper presents an